2 How Science Works (HSW) Learning objectivesTo recognise the strands of How Science Works in the national curriculumTo have ideas about how to deliver some of these strandsTo have some experience in planning the delivery of some of the HSW activities
3 What is HSW? Previous national curriculum for Key stages 3 and 4 Most of the statements in the Programme of Study refer to knowledgeSome statements refer to Ideas and evidence (to be delivered while teaching the knowledge part of the curriculum) and some to Investigative skillsCurrent national curriculum – Key stages 3 and 4Majority of the Programme of study is taken up with Key Concepts and Key Processes (KS3) or HSW (KS4).Very little ‘knowledge’ explicitly stated – what is there is the ‘Range and Content’.New national curriculum - KS3 (Sept 2014) and KS4Some statements refer to Working scientifically (to be delivered while teaching the knowledge part of the curriculum) which includes Scientific attitudes and Experimental skills and investigations.
4 What is it? Key Stage 3 1. Key concepts 1.1 Scientific thinking a Using scientific ideas and models to explain phenomenab Analysing and evaluating evidence from observations and experiments1.2 Applications and implications of sciencea Application of science can bring about technological developments and change the way people thinkb Ethical and moral implications of using and applying science.1.1 Scientific thinkinga Using scientific ideas and models to explain phenomena anddeveloping them creatively to generate and test theories.b Critically analysing and evaluating evidence from observations and experiments1.2 Applications and implications of sciencea Exploring how the creative application of scientific ideas can bring about technological developments and consequent changes in the way people think and behave.b Examining the ethical and moral implications of using and applying science.
5 What is it? Key Stage 3 1. Key concepts 1.3 Cultural understanding a Modern science draws on a variety of valid approaches to scientific practice from different cultures1.4 Collaborationa Sharing developments across disciplines
6 What is it? Key Stage 3 2. Key processes 2.1 Practical and enquiry skillsPupils should be able to:a use a range of scientific methods and techniques to develop and test ideas and explanationsb assess risk and work safely in the laboratoryc plan and carry out practical investigative activities, both individually and in groups.2.2 Critical understanding of evidencea obtain, record and analyse data from a wide range of primary and secondary sources, including ICT sources, and use their findings to provide evidence for scientific explanationsb evaluate scientific evidence and working methods.
7 What is it? Key Stage 3 2. Key processes 2.3 Communication Pupils should be able to:a use appropriate methods, including ICT, to communicate scientific information and contribute to presentations and discussions about scientific issues.
8 Organisation Integral part of science course Y7 upwards Incorporate ‘How Science Works’ activities relevant to the topics discussed, allowing skills and confidence to be built up gradually
9 What is it? Key Stage 4 Data, evidence, theories and explanations 1 Pupils should be taught:a how scientific data can be collected and analysedb how interpretation of data, using creative thought, provides evidence to test new ideas and develop theoriesc how explanations of many phenomena can be developed using scientific theories, models and ideasd that there are some questions that science cannot currently answer, and some that science cannot address
10 What is it? Key Stage 4 Practical and enquiry skills 2 Pupils should be taught to:a plan to test a scientific idea, answer a scientific question, or solve a scientific problemb collect data from primary or secondary sources, including using ICT sources and toolsc work accurately and safely, individually and with others, when collecting first-hand datad evaluate methods of collection of data and consider their validity and reliability as evidence.
11 What is it? Key Stage 4 Communication skills 3 Pupils should be taught to:a recall, analyse, interpret, apply and question scientific information or ideasb use both qualitative and quantitative approachesc present information, develop an argument and draw a conclusion, using scientific, technical and mathematical language, conventions and symbols and ICT tools.
12 What is it? Key Stage 4 Applications and implications of science 4 Pupils should be taught:a about the use of contemporary scientific and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risksb to consider how and why decisions about science and technology are made, including those that raise ethical issues, and about the social, economic and environmental effects of such decisionsc how uncertainties in scientific knowledge and scientific ideas change over time and about the role of the scientific community in validating these changes.
13 Tricky tracksHelps students to distinguish between observation and inferenceEncourages pupils to look carefully at the evidenceEncourages pupils to discuss and develop theoriesAll ideas are valid unless there is further evidence to suggest otherwiseDemonstrates how more evidence can change the theoryAll can contributeThere is no ‘right’ answerThinking about what other evidence to collect to test theoryUse ideas to explain phenomenaCritically analysing evidence from observationsGroup work - collaboration
14 Tricky tracksThis addresses the following from the KS4 Programme of study1b how interpretation of data, using creativethought, provides evidence to test ideas anddevelop theories3c to present information, develop an argument anddraw a conclusion4c how uncertainties in scientific knowledge andscientific ideas change over timeUse ideas to explain phenomenaCritically analysing evidence from observationsGroup work - collaboration
15 Which questions do scientists know the answer to Which questions do scientists know the answer to? Which will they never know?Did dinosaurs die out when a meteor hit the Earth?Why does the yolk of a hard-boiled egg go a funny green colour around the edge?Can human beings be cloned?Will you live longer if you exercise regularly?Is it possible to travel back in time?What will happen to the Universe eventually?Is there life on other planets?Should insurance companies be allowed to ask if you are genetically likely to develop diseases?
16 RiskIn groups of 3 or 4. The group should agree on a ranking of the risks from highest to lowest.One person picks out from the cards the three which they are personally most concerned about.These individuals explain the reasons behind their choices
17 Risk Being in a minor car accident Dying from an asteroid collision Killed by a falling coconutCatching fluDying from a heart attack
18 RiskThe key concepts of consequence and likelihood
19 Teaching strategies? Doing practical work and analysing data Looking at historical development of ideas e.g. of structure of the atom.Using models to explain scientific phenomenaexplicit recognition that this is a modelclarity in which part of the model represents which part of the objectdiscussion of what the model can and cannot explainrefinement of the model (or adoption of a new one) at later key stages, explaining why
20 Teaching strategies? Looking at contemporary issues including discussion of social, economic and environmental impact of decisionsdiscussion of ethical and moral implicationsmedia reportingrisk
21 Teaching strategies? Discussion Debate Hot-seating Role-play and drama Developing an argumentPresentation
22 What is your position as the teacher? What are the pros and cons of:-Teacher is an impartial chairperson of a discussion group.Teacher makes known his/her views during discussion.Teacher presents pupils with a wide, balanced range of alternative views.Devil’s advocate - the teacher consciously takes up the opposite position to the one expressed by pupils or teaching materials.
23 STEMSupport for schools in science, technology and mathematics – National STEM Centre in YorkEnrichment for pupils (challenges, hands-on workshops, science and engineering ambassadors)Support for teachers in support centres (CPD)Business links
24 How Science Works (HSW) Learning objectivesTo recognise the strands of How Science Works in the national curriculumTo have ideas about how to deliver some of these strandsTo have some experience in planning the delivery of some of the HSW activities
25 ReferencesBioEthics Education ProjectKind, V. & Kind, P.M. (2009) Teaching Secondary How Science Works, London: Hodder EducationPlanet sciencePhysics Ethics Education ProjectScience Year CDs, ASE
26 ReferencesStrengthening teaching and learning in science through using different pedagogies Unit 1: Using group talk and argument (Science ‘PedPack’)Strengthening teaching and learning in science through using different pedagogies Unit 5: Teaching the science of contemporary issues (science ‘PedPack’)UPD8Warren, D. (2001) The nature of science, London: Royal Society of ChemistryWellington, J. (2000) Teaching and learning secondary science, Abingdon: Routledge
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