Presentation on theme: "Developing Study Skills and Research Methods"— Presentation transcript:
1 Developing Study Skills and Research Methods Unit Code: HL20107Unit Leader: Dr James Betts
2 Objectives: Learn to review and critique scientific literature Develop your presentation skillsExpand your understanding of research designGain a more advanced appreciation of data analysisIntroduce you to different perspectives in Exercise Science.
3 Lecture ScheduleMondays 1515All in room 3E 3.8Weeks 1-11.
4 Week Topic 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Job Applications/CV Writing Unit Overview/How to Write a literature ReviewPresenting Scientific ResearchPlagiarismScientific WritingIntroduction to Qualitative Research Methods*Data Collection and Analysis in Qualitative ResearchCan We Trust Sports Science?*Assessed Presentations IAssessed Presentations IIAssessed Presentations III.* Prior reading required
6 WeekTopic1920212223242526293031Introduction and Revision SessionOne-Way Analysis of VarianceManaging Violated Statistical AssumptionsLocating Variance: Post-Hoc TestsStatistical Power: Sample and Effect SizeLinear Regression and Coursework DetailsData Collection PracticalPractice for Timed Practical Computing ExerciseTimed Practical Computing ExerciseCoursework Revision LectureCoursework Hand-In.
7 Assessment Coursework Project (40%) 2000 word project similar to the one you did last year but using more advanced statistical analysesThe relevant research scenarios and data will be added to the web page in week 24Hand-in date TBC in week 19.Timed Practical Computing Exercise (20%)In week 30 you will be required to use SPSS to analyse a number of data sets
8 Assessment Group Literature Review (20%) Organise yourselves into groups of 5Select an area of research that is of interest to youFind and read relevant articlesFill in the form on the web page to let us know your group/topic by week 4 (21st October)Write a 2000 word literature reviewTo be handed in Thursday 21st November 2012Groups distribute your grades amongst others.
9 Assessment Group Presentations (20%) Choose one original research article that is central to your group literature reviewPrepare a PowerPoint presentation as if the study was to be presented at a scientific conferenceYou will be presenting as groups in weeks 9, 10 &11I will let you know which week via after your lecture on the 21st October
10 Previous Topics… The Effects of Training at Altitude Nutritional Strategies to Promote RecoveryPsychological Components of Injury and RehabilitationThe Effects of Smoking on VO2 maxThe Effect of Pre-Exercise Stretching on Muscle Power Output.
11 Different types of papers Primary literatureSecondary literatureTertiary literature
12 Primary Literature Research Papers Case Studies Conference Proceedings Dissertations
13 Primary Literature Research papers Original data First published record of the findings of an experiment of series of experimentsPeer reviewedNormally a group of authors
14 Primary Literature Case studies Medical/veterinary/psychology literatureNormally peer reviewedReport the circumstances of a particular casei.e. an unusual repair technique for a ruptured achilles tendon
15 Primary Literature Conference proceedings Vary in length and quality! Sometimes reviewed, sometimes notOften preliminary dataWill often appear later in research paper form
16 Primary Literature Dissertations Undergraduate research (BSc, MSc, BEng or MEng)Graduate research (MSc, MPhil, PhD)University publishedBSc all dissertation that achieve mark of 50% or above in libraryMPhil & PhD theses are examined and corrected
17 Secondary Literature Review articles Information about primary sources Compilation or synthesis of ideas and dataShould be reasonably objective (although often aren’t)Usually peer reviewed
18 Tertiary LiteratureTextbooks – present science theory rather than contributing to it
19 Research Paper Structure AbstractIntroductionMaterials and MethodsResultsDiscussionReferences
20 Abstract Advertisement for the paper Summary of paper Reason for performing the studyHypothesisImportant resultsImplications of the findings
21 Introduction Background to the study Brief overview of the current state of the fieldCiting other people’s work“The function of tendons can be classified into two categories: tensile force transmission, and storage of elastic strain energy during locomotion (Ker et al., 1988, 2000; Shadwick, 1990; Pollock and Shadwick, 1994).”(Maganaris and Paul, 2002)
22 Introduction Background to the study Brief overview of the current state of the fieldCiting other people’s workHow the authors arrived at their research questionWhy this is the most important question in the world!HYPOTHESISSimpleEasily answered
23 Materials and Methods Clear concise description of what they did Often includes figure of experimental setup if appropriateSubjectsData collection – what they were measuring and howAnalysisStatisticsMethods should be clear enough to repeat the experiment and give the same results
24 Results What they found Visual representation of the data GraphsTablesGood figure legendsDescription of their results - no discussion of the implications
25 Discussion Interpretation of the results How they relate to previous researchImplication and/or applications of the findingsHow supplement A might improve enduranceHow knowledge of the forces at the knee during a cutting manoeuvre might be used to reduce injury riskFuture directions for research
26 References Expansion of the citations in the text Record of the authors, title and journal where the papers were publishedCritically important to avoid plagiarism – must include the sources of all information that is other people’s intellectual propertyTwo citation methodsHarvard SystemNumeric SystemIndividual journals will request specific methods
27 ReferencesHarvard SystemCite references in the text by giving author’s surname(s) and year of publication.“The function of tendons can be classified into two categories: tensile force transmission, and storage of elastic strain energy during locomotion (Ker et al., 1988, 2000; Shadwick, 1990; Pollock and Shadwick, 1994).”
28 ReferencesHarvard SystemCite references in the text by giving author’s surname(s) and year of publication.“The function of tendons can be classified into two categories: tensile force transmission, and storage of elastic strain energy during locomotion (Ker et al., 1988, 2000; Shadwick, 1990; Pollock and Shadwick, 1994).”(Maganaris and Paul, 2002)Reference list – alphabetical orderKer, R.F., Alexander, R.McN. and Bennet, M.B Why are mammalian tendons so thick? Journal of Zoology, London 216,Don’t use capitals for authors’ names as in library guide to referencing
29 ReferencesNumeric SystemEach citation is given a number in parentheses. These are numbered according to where they appear in the text. First reference is (1), second reference is (2) etc“However, excess tendon elongation leads to a partial or complete tendon rupture (4), and the Achilles tendon is one of the most frequently injured tendons in the human body (5)”(Muraoka et al., 2005)Reference list – listed in numerical order based on number you have given each citation in the text.4. Butler, D.L., Grood, E.S., Noyes, F.R.and Zernicke, R.F Biomechanics of ligaments and tendons. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 6,
31 What is a literature review? Critical look at existing research relevant to your question in order toIdentify the problemDevelop a hypothesisDevelop a methodIt is NOT just a summary of a series of research papersYou must evaluate the research papers and show the relationships between different work
32 What is a literature review? Approach it with the following questionsWhat do we already know in the area concerned?What are the key concepts?What are the existing theories?What are the inconsistencies?What evidence is lacking, inconclusive, contradictory or too limited?What views need to be tested further?
33 Selecting a topic Real World vs Theoretical Research at Bath or another institutionControversial issuesRelevant to your sportReview papersInteresting!!!
34 Six Step Procedure (Thomas and Nelson, 1996) Problem statementConsult secondary sourcesReviews – Exercise and Sport Science reviewsBe wary of www sources
35 Evaluating Internet Sources Is it someone’s ‘personal’ page?What type of domain does it come from?academic, charity, industry, governmentWho published the page?What are the author’s credentials?Are sources documented?When was it last updated?
36 Six Step Procedure (Thomas and Nelson, 1996) Problem statementConsult secondary sourcesReviews – Exercise and Sport Science reviewsBe wary of www sourcesDetermine descriptorsSearch termsSearch for primary sourcesRead and record literatureWrite literature review
37 Read and Record Literature Hypothesis / QuestionMethodsSubjectsInstruments/tests usedTesting proceduresIndependent/dependent variablesAnalysisFindings and ConclusionsCritique of paper – strengths/weaknesses
38 How to Write a Literature Review BackgroundIntroduce to topic to the readerMake it interesting and easily understandable by explaining it in plain language and relating to actual or potential applicationsExplain scientific principles underlying the topicDefine and justify the scope of the review – i.e. your question
39 How to Write a Literature Review Critique of the LiteratureDo not give a summary paper by paperDeal with themes and try to draw together the results from several papers into each theme.Use sub-headings to identify your themesTry and create a logical progression through the subject/argumentUse what you have learnt about research design to critically evaluate the results of the papers you are discussing
40 How to Write a Literature Review Tables and FiguresTables can be a useful, concise way of summarising the findings of a number of similar studiesYou must cite the sources of the informationUse tables alongside your evaluation of the data in the text, not instead of itFigures and diagrams can be very useful to explain important principlesCite source of information
41 How to Write a Literature Review ConclusionsShould be short and conciseWhat is your opinionFurther ResearchFinish your review with some ideas for further research that needs to be done in the area and why.
42 How to Write a Literature Review ReferencesAs used in Journal of Sports SciencesNames of author (s) and date of publication in the textFull references listed in alphabetical order in the reference listInstructions on formatting references can be found in all issues of JSS or on the JSS websiteSection 5(h)
43 Writing Style Spelling, grammar and punctuation matter! Use spell checkAsk someone to read your paper for you before handing it inFonts and SymbolsDo not use stylised fontsMany of the symbols needed for scientific information can be found in insert-symbolNormal text (° ± Δ ½)Mathematical operators (Ω √ ≤ ∑)
44 Writing Style Abbreviations and Acronyms Keep to a minimumOnly use if full expression is excessively long or abbreviation is in common useDefine the first time it is usedUse SI (Systeme Internationale) Units
45 Système Internationale (SI) Units Seven ‘constant’* base units using the metric systemVariableUnitSymbolAccepted DerivationsDistancemetremha for area; º for angle; #l or L for volumeMass*kilogramkgtTimesecondsmin, h, d (not year)TemperaturekelvinKMolemolemol#l or L for volumeCurrentampereALuminancecandelacdThese are the standard accepted units that you should always strive to use unless you really feel inappropriate or meaningless.These are intended to be constant but, in reality are constantly being refined with improving measurement techniques:Meter a prime eg – originally one ten-millionth of the distance from the earth equator to the north pole, now the distance travelled by light in just under one three-hundred millionth of a second in a vacuum. Clearly these are inter-related then, as distance relies on time, so we use a further very stable natural occurring phenomena, such as atomic numbers and radiations etc to label a second.This works well until we get to mass. Which was originally a cubic decimeter of water (therefore derived from distances, although temperature and pressure will skew this relationship), so 4 PLATINUM-IRIDIUM CYLINDERS have been calibrated to exactly 1 kg and are held in a vault in France at the Bureau International des poids et mesures (BIPM) I.E. BI weights and measures.For note:Mole = amount of substance or chemical amount. Specifically defined as the amount of of substance that has a mass in grams equal to that substance’s molecular or atomic mass (e.g. 1 mol water H20 has a mass of 18 units, so therefore would read 18 g on a weighing scale)0 Kelvin is the absence of all thermal energy and is referred to as absolute zero (means particles absolutely motionless).Units always lower-case#, neither italicised nor pleuralised (i.e. kg not KGS) and with space between value and unit (inc. % but exc. º).
46 Writing Style Tables Figures Insert-Table in word Units in column and row headingsUse a realistic number of significant figuresInclude a legend which describes the tableFiguresCreate figure in powerpoint of graphics softwareInsert-picture from fileCreate graphs in Excel or other graph drawing packagePaste into wordFor this review paste figures into appropriate place in the text. For publication figures should be separate
47 Writing Style Use of Words Be economical – don’t waffle Be precise – don’t generalise, be specific if you canDon’t use however more than once in a paragraphchanging the direction of an argument twice in one paragraph can confuse the readerDon’t use however too oftenThesaurus for synonymsKeep technical terms to a minimumAvoid colloquialisms such as steer clear of
48 Writing Style Use of Words Don’t use long complicated sentences Beware of tensesWhen describing experiments and reporting results use past tenseWhen discussing implications use present tenseBeware of singular and plural termsDatum – dataMedium – mediaPhenomenon – phenomena
49 Writing Style Flow of Ideas Focus your thoughts by writing a plan/outline firstThe first sentence of a paragraph usually sets the topic for the paragraphCheck that you don’t contradict yourselfAim for simplicity!
50 READ YOUR WORK BEFORE YOU HAND IT IN READ YOUR WORK BEFORE YOU HAND IT IN!!! Preferably ask someone else to read it too!