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Developing Study Skills and Research Methods

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1 Developing Study Skills and Research Methods
Unit Code: HL20107 Unit Leader: Dr James Betts

2 Objectives: Learn to review and critique scientific literature
Develop your presentation skills Expand your understanding of research design Gain a more advanced appreciation of data analysis Introduce you to different perspectives in Exercise Science.

3 Lecture Schedule Mondays 1515 All in room 3E 3.8 Weeks 1-11.

4 Week Topic 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Job Applications/CV Writing
Unit Overview/How to Write a literature Review Presenting Scientific Research Plagiarism Scientific Writing Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods* Data Collection and Analysis in Qualitative Research Can We Trust Sports Science?* Assessed Presentations I Assessed Presentations II Assessed Presentations III. * Prior reading required

5 Semester 1 Computer Laboratory Classes
Friday 12.15 Weeks 4 & 5 Room 2E 1.14 Friday 13.15 Week 4 & 5 Room CB 5.13 Surnames A-J Surnames K-Z

6 Week Topic 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 29 30 31 Introduction and Revision Session One-Way Analysis of Variance Managing Violated Statistical Assumptions Locating Variance: Post-Hoc Tests Statistical Power: Sample and Effect Size Linear Regression and Coursework Details Data Collection Practical Practice for Timed Practical Computing Exercise Timed Practical Computing Exercise Coursework Revision Lecture Coursework Hand-In.

7 Assessment Coursework Project (40%)
2000 word project similar to the one you did last year but using more advanced statistical analyses The relevant research scenarios and data will be added to the web page in week 24 Hand-in date TBC in week 19. Timed Practical Computing Exercise (20%) In week 30 you will be required to use SPSS to analyse a number of data sets

8 Assessment Group Literature Review (20%)
Organise yourselves into groups of 5 Select an area of research that is of interest to you Find and read relevant articles Fill in the form on the web page to let us know your group/topic by week 4 (21st October) Write a 2000 word literature review To be handed in Thursday 21st November 2012 Groups distribute your grades amongst others.

9 Assessment Group Presentations (20%)
Choose one original research article that is central to your group literature review Prepare a PowerPoint presentation as if the study was to be presented at a scientific conference You will be presenting as groups in weeks 9, 10 &11 I will let you know which week via after your lecture on the 21st October

10 Previous Topics… The Effects of Training at Altitude
Nutritional Strategies to Promote Recovery Psychological Components of Injury and Rehabilitation The Effects of Smoking on VO2 max The Effect of Pre-Exercise Stretching on Muscle Power Output.

11 Different types of papers
Primary literature Secondary literature Tertiary literature

12 Primary Literature Research Papers Case Studies Conference Proceedings

13 Primary Literature Research papers Original data
First published record of the findings of an experiment of series of experiments Peer reviewed Normally a group of authors

14 Primary Literature Case studies
Medical/veterinary/psychology literature Normally peer reviewed Report the circumstances of a particular case i.e. an unusual repair technique for a ruptured achilles tendon

15 Primary Literature Conference proceedings Vary in length and quality!
Sometimes reviewed, sometimes not Often preliminary data Will often appear later in research paper form

16 Primary Literature Dissertations
Undergraduate research (BSc, MSc, BEng or MEng) Graduate research (MSc, MPhil, PhD) University published BSc all dissertation that achieve mark of 50% or above in library MPhil & PhD theses are examined and corrected

17 Secondary Literature Review articles Information about primary sources
Compilation or synthesis of ideas and data Should be reasonably objective (although often aren’t) Usually peer reviewed

18 Tertiary Literature Textbooks – present science theory rather than contributing to it

19 Research Paper Structure
Abstract Introduction Materials and Methods Results Discussion References

20 Abstract Advertisement for the paper Summary of paper
Reason for performing the study Hypothesis Important results Implications of the findings

21 Introduction Background to the study
Brief overview of the current state of the field Citing other people’s work “The function of tendons can be classified into two categories: tensile force transmission, and storage of elastic strain energy during locomotion (Ker et al., 1988, 2000; Shadwick, 1990; Pollock and Shadwick, 1994).” (Maganaris and Paul, 2002)

22 Introduction Background to the study
Brief overview of the current state of the field Citing other people’s work How the authors arrived at their research question Why this is the most important question in the world! HYPOTHESIS Simple Easily answered

23 Materials and Methods Clear concise description of what they did
Often includes figure of experimental setup if appropriate Subjects Data collection – what they were measuring and how Analysis Statistics Methods should be clear enough to repeat the experiment and give the same results

24 Results What they found Visual representation of the data
Graphs Tables Good figure legends Description of their results - no discussion of the implications

25 Discussion Interpretation of the results
How they relate to previous research Implication and/or applications of the findings How supplement A might improve endurance How knowledge of the forces at the knee during a cutting manoeuvre might be used to reduce injury risk Future directions for research

26 References Expansion of the citations in the text
Record of the authors, title and journal where the papers were published Critically important to avoid plagiarism – must include the sources of all information that is other people’s intellectual property Two citation methods Harvard System Numeric System Individual journals will request specific methods

27 References Harvard System Cite references in the text by giving author’s surname(s) and year of publication. “The function of tendons can be classified into two categories: tensile force transmission, and storage of elastic strain energy during locomotion (Ker et al., 1988, 2000; Shadwick, 1990; Pollock and Shadwick, 1994).”

28 References Harvard System Cite references in the text by giving author’s surname(s) and year of publication. “The function of tendons can be classified into two categories: tensile force transmission, and storage of elastic strain energy during locomotion (Ker et al., 1988, 2000; Shadwick, 1990; Pollock and Shadwick, 1994).” (Maganaris and Paul, 2002) Reference list – alphabetical order Ker, R.F., Alexander, R.McN. and Bennet, M.B Why are mammalian tendons so thick? Journal of Zoology, London 216, Don’t use capitals for authors’ names as in library guide to referencing

29 References Numeric System Each citation is given a number in parentheses. These are numbered according to where they appear in the text. First reference is (1), second reference is (2) etc “However, excess tendon elongation leads to a partial or complete tendon rupture (4), and the Achilles tendon is one of the most frequently injured tendons in the human body (5)” (Muraoka et al., 2005) Reference list – listed in numerical order based on number you have given each citation in the text. 4. Butler, D.L., Grood, E.S., Noyes, F.R.and Zernicke, R.F Biomechanics of ligaments and tendons. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 6,

30 References Library Guide to Referencing

31 What is a literature review?
Critical look at existing research relevant to your question in order to Identify the problem Develop a hypothesis Develop a method It is NOT just a summary of a series of research papers You must evaluate the research papers and show the relationships between different work

32 What is a literature review?
Approach it with the following questions What do we already know in the area concerned? What are the key concepts? What are the existing theories? What are the inconsistencies? What evidence is lacking, inconclusive, contradictory or too limited? What views need to be tested further?

33 Selecting a topic Real World vs Theoretical
Research at Bath or another institution Controversial issues Relevant to your sport Review papers Interesting!!!

34 Six Step Procedure (Thomas and Nelson, 1996)
Problem statement Consult secondary sources Reviews – Exercise and Sport Science reviews Be wary of www sources

35 Evaluating Internet Sources
Is it someone’s ‘personal’ page? What type of domain does it come from? academic, charity, industry, government Who published the page? What are the author’s credentials? Are sources documented? When was it last updated?

36 Six Step Procedure (Thomas and Nelson, 1996)
Problem statement Consult secondary sources Reviews – Exercise and Sport Science reviews Be wary of www sources Determine descriptors Search terms Search for primary sources Read and record literature Write literature review

37 Read and Record Literature
Hypothesis / Question Methods Subjects Instruments/tests used Testing procedures Independent/dependent variables Analysis Findings and Conclusions Critique of paper – strengths/weaknesses

38 How to Write a Literature Review
Background Introduce to topic to the reader Make it interesting and easily understandable by explaining it in plain language and relating to actual or potential applications Explain scientific principles underlying the topic Define and justify the scope of the review – i.e. your question

39 How to Write a Literature Review
Critique of the Literature Do not give a summary paper by paper Deal with themes and try to draw together the results from several papers into each theme. Use sub-headings to identify your themes Try and create a logical progression through the subject/argument Use what you have learnt about research design to critically evaluate the results of the papers you are discussing

40 How to Write a Literature Review
Tables and Figures Tables can be a useful, concise way of summarising the findings of a number of similar studies You must cite the sources of the information Use tables alongside your evaluation of the data in the text, not instead of it Figures and diagrams can be very useful to explain important principles Cite source of information

41 How to Write a Literature Review
Conclusions Should be short and concise What is your opinion Further Research Finish your review with some ideas for further research that needs to be done in the area and why.

42 How to Write a Literature Review
References As used in Journal of Sports Sciences Names of author (s) and date of publication in the text Full references listed in alphabetical order in the reference list Instructions on formatting references can be found in all issues of JSS or on the JSS website Section 5(h)

43 Writing Style Spelling, grammar and punctuation matter!
Use spell check Ask someone to read your paper for you before handing it in Fonts and Symbols Do not use stylised fonts Many of the symbols needed for scientific information can be found in insert-symbol Normal text (° ± Δ ½) Mathematical operators (Ω √ ≤ ∑)

44 Writing Style Abbreviations and Acronyms
Keep to a minimum Only use if full expression is excessively long or abbreviation is in common use Define the first time it is used Use SI (Systeme Internationale) Units

45 Système Internationale (SI) Units
Seven ‘constant’* base units using the metric system Variable Unit Symbol Accepted Derivations Distance metre m ha for area; º for angle; #l or L for volume Mass* kilogram kg t Time second s min, h, d (not year) Temperature kelvin K Mole mole mol #l or L for volume Current ampere A Luminance candela cd These are the standard accepted units that you should always strive to use unless you really feel inappropriate or meaningless. These are intended to be constant but, in reality are constantly being refined with improving measurement techniques: Meter a prime eg – originally one ten-millionth of the distance from the earth equator to the north pole, now the distance travelled by light in just under one three-hundred millionth of a second in a vacuum. Clearly these are inter-related then, as distance relies on time, so we use a further very stable natural occurring phenomena, such as atomic numbers and radiations etc to label a second. This works well until we get to mass. Which was originally a cubic decimeter of water (therefore derived from distances, although temperature and pressure will skew this relationship), so 4 PLATINUM-IRIDIUM CYLINDERS have been calibrated to exactly 1 kg and are held in a vault in France at the Bureau International des poids et mesures (BIPM) I.E. BI weights and measures. For note: Mole = amount of substance or chemical amount. Specifically defined as the amount of of substance that has a mass in grams equal to that substance’s molecular or atomic mass (e.g. 1 mol water H20 has a mass of 18 units, so therefore would read 18 g on a weighing scale) 0 Kelvin is the absence of all thermal energy and is referred to as absolute zero (means particles absolutely motionless). Units always lower-case#, neither italicised nor pleuralised (i.e. kg not KGS) and with space between value and unit (inc. % but exc. º).

46 Writing Style Tables Figures Insert-Table in word
Units in column and row headings Use a realistic number of significant figures Include a legend which describes the table Figures Create figure in powerpoint of graphics software Insert-picture from file Create graphs in Excel or other graph drawing package Paste into word For this review paste figures into appropriate place in the text. For publication figures should be separate

47 Writing Style Use of Words Be economical – don’t waffle
Be precise – don’t generalise, be specific if you can Don’t use however more than once in a paragraph changing the direction of an argument twice in one paragraph can confuse the reader Don’t use however too often Thesaurus for synonyms Keep technical terms to a minimum Avoid colloquialisms such as steer clear of

48 Writing Style Use of Words Don’t use long complicated sentences
Beware of tenses When describing experiments and reporting results use past tense When discussing implications use present tense Beware of singular and plural terms Datum – data Medium – media Phenomenon – phenomena

49 Writing Style Flow of Ideas
Focus your thoughts by writing a plan/outline first The first sentence of a paragraph usually sets the topic for the paragraph Check that you don’t contradict yourself Aim for simplicity!

READ YOUR WORK BEFORE YOU HAND IT IN!!! Preferably ask someone else to read it too!

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