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3-1 Chapter 3 Flow of Control (part a - branching)

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1 3-1 Chapter 3 Flow of Control (part a - branching)

2 3-2 Flow of Control in a program Program statements Program statements Program statements either or (branching) repetition (or loop)

3 3-3 Flow of Control Java has several branching mechanisms for either / or: if, if-else, and switch statements Java has three types of loop statements for repeating actions: the while, do-while, and for statements Most branching and looping statements are controlled by Boolean expressions

4 3-4 The if statement –General form: if( logical-expression ); true-part executes if logical express is true –A logical-expression is any expression that evaluates to true or false –eg sales < 15000.00 hoursWorked > 40 true || false // || is the OR operator

5 3-5 Java Comparison Operators

6 3-6 Basic if statement semantics Syntax if (Expression) Action Semantics If the Expression is true then execute Action Action is either a single statement or a group of statements within braces Expression Action true false

7 3-7 Branching with an if-else Statement An if-else statement chooses between two alternative statements based on the value of a Boolean expression if (Boolean_Expression) Yes_Statement else No_Statement –The Boolean_Expression must be enclosed in parentheses –Only if the Boolean_Expression is true is the Yes_Statement executed –If the Boolean_Expression is false, then the No_Statement is executed

8 3-8 Compound Statements Each Yes_Statement and No_Statement branch of an if-else can be a made up of a single statement or many statements if (myScore > your Score) { System.out.println("I win!"); wager = wager + 100; } else { System.out.println ("I wish these were golf scores."); wager = 0; }

9 Simple example Suppose you have input salary and deductions. Write an if - else statement that outputs the word Crazy if deduction are less than salary; otherwise calculate the net salary as salary less deductions and output the message OK. If (salary < deductions) { System.out.println("Crazy"); } else { System.out.println("OK"); net = salary - deductions; } 3-9

10 The Ternary Operator ? : The conditional if: if (n1 > n2) max = n1; else max = n2; Can be expressed using the ternary operator: max = (n1 > n2) ? n1 : n2 This gives an identical action to the usual conditional if. 3-10

11 3-11 Boolean Expressions The simplest Boolean expressions compare the value of two expressions time < limit yourScore == myScore –Again note that Java uses two equal signs ( == ) to perform equality testing: A single equal sign ( = ) is used only for assignment

12 3-12 Multiway if-else Statement if (Boolean_Expression) Statement_1 else if (Boolean_Expression) Statement_2 else if (Boolean_Expression_n) Statement_n else Statement_For_All_Other_Possibilities...

13 Multiway if-else Statement Consider the following: (a < b) ? (b < c) ? (a < c) ? (b < c) ? (c < b < a) ? (b < c < a) ? (b < a < c ) ? (c < a < b) ? (a < c < b) ? (a < c) ? (a < b < c) ? true false

14 Multiway if-else Statement First attempt: The compiler always matches the else to the latest (previous) unmatched if: If (a<b) if (b<c) System.out.println(a<b<c); else if (a<c) System.out.println(a<c<b); else if (a<c) System.out.println(b<a<c); else if (b<c) System.out.println(b<c<a); else System.out.println(c<b<a); Would compile but gives the wrong answer as the c <a < b branch cannot be printed

15 Multiway if-else Statement Second attempt: The compiler always matches the else to the latest unmatched if: If (a<b) if (b<c) System.out.println(a<b<c); else if (a<c) System.out.println(a<c<b); else System.out.println(c<a<b); else if (a<c) System.out.println(b<a<c); else if (b<c) System.out.println(b<c<a); else System.out.println(c<b<a); The correct answer!

16 3-16 Defining boolean variables Boolean variables are uninitialized when declared boolean isMyLogic; boolean receivedAcknowledgement; boolean haveFoundMissingLink; No value stored in memory -isMyLogic -receivedAcknowledgement -haveFoundMissingLink

17 3-17 Defining boolean variables Boolean variables with initialization boolean canProceed = true; boolean preferCyan = false; boolean completedSecretMission = true; Most problems require initialisation truecanProceed falsepreferCyan truecompletedSecretMission

18 3-18 Building Boolean Expressions Reminder from maths: When two Boolean expressions are combined using the "and" ( && ) operator, the entire expression is true provided both expressions are true –Otherwise the expression is false When two Boolean expressions are combined using the "or" ( || ) operator, the entire expression is true as long as one of the expressions is true –The expression is false only if both expressions are false Any Boolean expression can be negated using the ! operator –Place the expression in parentheses and place the ! operator in front of it Unlike mathematical notation, strings of inequalities must be joined by && –Use (min < result) && (result < max) rather than min < result < max

19 3-19 Evaluating Boolean Expressions A Boolean expression can be evaluated in the same way that an arithmetic expression is evaluated The only difference is that arithmetic expressions produce a number as a result, while Boolean expressions produce either true or false as their result boolean madeIt = (time < limit) && (limit < max);

20 3-20 Short-Circuit and Complete Evaluation Java can take a shortcut when the evaluation of the first part of a Boolean expression produces a result that evaluation of the second part cannot change This is called short-circuit evaluation or lazy evaluation –For example, if (boolean is false) or …………….. short-circuit if (boolean is true) || …………….. short-circuit

21 3-21 Evaluating Expressions Parentheses: In general, parentheses in an expression help to document the programmer's intent –Instead of relying on precedence and associativity rules, it is best to include most parentheses, except where the intended meaning is obvious Binding: The association of operands with their operators –A fully parenthesized expression accomplishes binding in am easy an obvious way

22 3-22 Note on equivalence Using equivalence to test object references and primitive objects, such as integers, is without ambiguity providing that the primitive object is not a floating point number. Floating point numbers must be handled with care as their representation is not exact. Given double x,y; where x=1.5; y=2.25/x; (thus x and y are 1.5) what does the following return? if( x == y ) System.out.print( same ); else System.out.print( different ); Answer:different (almost certainly)

23 3-23 Note on equivalence Given double x,y;x=1.5; y=2.25/x; what does the following return? if ( Math.abs( x - y ) <= epsilon ) System.out.print( same ); else System.out.print( different ); Where epsilon is chosen small, say 1e-7 for a double variable, (1e-4 for a float variable). Now the return value is same.

24 3-24 The switch Statement The switch statement is the only other kind of Java statement that implements multiway branching –When a switch statement is evaluated, one of a number of different branches is executed –The choice of which branch to execute is determined by a controlling expression enclosed in parentheses after the keyword switch The controlling expression must evaluate to a char, int, short, or byte. We will use char or int

25 3-25 The switch Statement switch (Controlling_Expression) { case Case_Label_1: Statement_Sequence_1 break; case Case_Label_2: Statement_Sequence_2 break; case Case_Label_n: Statement_Sequence_n break; default: Default_Statement Sequence break; }...

26 3-26 The switch Statement Note, each branch statement in a switch statement starts with the reserved word case, followed by a constant called a case label, then a sequence of statements –Each case label must be of the same type as the controlling expression –Case labels need not be listed in order or span a complete interval, but each one may appear only once –Each sequence of statements may be followed by a break statement ( break; )

27 3-27 The switch Statement Note –When the computer executes the statements after a case label, it continues until a break statement is reached –If the break statement is omitted, then after executing the code for one case, the computer will go on to execute the code for the next case –If the break statement is omitted inadvertently, the compiler will not issue an error message There can also be a section labeled default : –The default section is optional, and is usually last –Even if the case labels cover all possible outcomes in a given switch statement, it is still a good practice to include a default section It can be used to output an error message, for example

28 3-28 Chapter 3 Flow of Control (part b - loops)

29 3-29 Loops Loops in Java are used to repeat the action of a section of code. Java has three types of loop statements: the: while, do-while, for. –The code that is repeated in a loop is called the body of the loop –Each repetition of the loop body is called an iteration of the loop

30 3-30 while (Boolean_Expression) Statement Or more generaly while (Boolean_Expression) { Statement_1 Statement_2 Statement_Last } –The Boolean expression is checked before the loop body is executed When false, the loop body is not executed at all –For each following iteration, the Boolean expression is checked again while Syntax...

31 While Semantics Expression Action true false Expression is evaluated at the start of each iteration of the loop If Expression is true, Action is executed If Expression is false, program execution continues with next statement

32 3-32 While loops - Newton Iteration Find the root of the equation sin x - 0.5 = 0 using Newtons method x n =x n-1 - f(x n )/f / (x n ) Therefore, x n+1 = x n - (sin (x n ) - 0.5)/cos(x n ) Code fragment to solve this equation: x = 0.5; // Initial estimate of root, notconv = true; while (notconv) { xn = x - (Math.sin(x) - 0.5)/Math.cos(x); If ( Math.abs(xn - x) < 1e-8) notconv = false; else x = xn;Why? } This example could run for ever if the iteration does not converge. Why?

33 3-33 Loop Bugs The two most common kinds of loop errors are unintended infinite loops and off-by-one errors –An off-by-one error is when a loop repeats the loop body one too many or one too few times This usually results from a carelessly designed Boolean test expression If the Boolean expression remains true, then the loop will run forever, resulting in an infinite loop –Use of == or != in the controlling Boolean expression can lead to an infinite loop or an off-by-one error This sort of testing works only for characters and integers, and should never be used for floating-point

34 3-34 Tracing Variables in loops, etc Tracing variables involves watching one or more variables change value while a program is running This can make it easier to discover errors in a program and debug them Many IDEs (Integrated Development Environments) have a built-in utility that allows variables to be traced without making any changes to the program Another way to trace variables is to simply insert temporary output statements in a program System.out.println("n = " + n); // Tracing n –When the error is found and corrected, the trace statements can simply be commented out. The marker can then see your good practice for testing the integrity of your design.

35 Case Studies on Newton iteration with while-loop Protect against unlimited iterations 3-35

36 3-36 do-while Statement Similar to the while statement but the logical test is at the end of the loop –The loop body is executed at least once The Boolean expression is checked after the loop body is executed –The Boolean expression is checked after each iteration of the loop body If true, the loop body is executed again If false, the loop statement ends Don't forget to put a semicolon after the Boolean expression –Like the while statement, the loop body can consist of a single statement, or multiple statements enclosed in a pair of braces ( { } )

37 The do-while statement Semantics of do-while –Execute Action once –If Expression is true then execute Action again –Repeat this process until Expression evaluates to false Syntax of do-while do Statement while (Boolean_Expression); Or more generally do { Statement_1 Statement_2 Statement_Last } while (Boolean_Expression); Action true false Expression Semantics

38 3-38 Sentinel Loops – to control size of loop –A sentinel is a specific input from the user to signal that there is no more data to be input. We use this method to enable us to vary the length of the input stream of data, without having to count the number of data items The sentinel should be the same type of data as being processed in the loop. The sentinel must not be in the valid range of data. Example: Enter exam scores or -1 to indicate that we have reached the end of the input data stream. 80 95 76 82 56 100 45 86 -1 -1 is the sentinel. As exam scores are between 1 and 100, the sentinel is out of the range of valid data.

39 3-39 Summation construct This is a useful programming construct for the summation of a set of numbers: Sum 1, 2, 3, 5, 2, 7, 9, 10. Set sum initially to 0, sum = 0; Traverse the list adding in each term using sum = sum + nextTerm; Then sum = sum + nextTerm; sum is 0 + 1 giving 1 sum = sum + nextTerm; sum is 1 + 2 giving 3 sum = sum + nextTerm; sum is 3 + 3 giving 6.. sum = sum + nextTerm; sum is 29 + 10 giving 39 A for loop is one obvious way of controlling this construct.

40 3-40 The for Statement for (Initializing; Boolean_Expression; Update) {code to be repeated} Usually, the total number of repeats are known. –The first expression tells how the control variable or variables are initialized or declared and initialized before the first iteration –The second expression determines when the loop should end, based on the evaluation of a Boolean expression before each iteration –The third expression tells how the control variable or variables are updated after each iteration of the loop body

41 3-41 The for Statement Syntax for (Initializing; Boolean_Expression; Update) {code to be repeated} The Body may consist of a single statement or a list of statements enclosed in a pair of brackets ( { } ) Note that the three control expressions are separated by two semicolons Note that there is no semicolon after the closing parenthesis at the beginning of the loop

42 3-42 Semantics of the for Statement

43 3-43 The Comma in for Statements A for loop can contain multiple initialization actions separated with commas eg imax=6; jmin =6; for(i=1, j=10; (i jmin); i=i+1,j=j-1) {code to be repeated} A for loop can contain multiple update actions, separated with commas However, a for loop can contain only one Boolean expression to test for ending the loop

44 3-44 Example for-loop to produces an average public class summation { public static void main(String[ ] args) { int sum, n, nextTerm; double average; Scanner keyboard = new Scanner(; System.out.print( How many numbers do you wish to average? "); n = keyboard.nextInt( ); for( int j = 1; j <= n; j = j + 1 ) // Repeat n times { System.out.print("Enter number: "); nextTerm = stdin.nextInt( ); sum = sum + nextTerm; } average = sum / (double) n; System.out.print( "Average of " + n + " numbers is " + average ) }

45 3-45 Incremental Assignment Operators We have three methods for the incrementing the for-loop. These methods have identical action: for( int j = 1; j <= n; j = j +1 ), for( int j = 1; j <= n; j ++ ), for( int j = 1; j <= n; j +=1 ), each having the same result of incrementing j by 1 for each pass through the loop.

46 3-46 Nested Loops Loops can be nested, just like other Java structures –When nested, the inner loop iterates from beginning to end for each single iteration of the outer loop int rowNum, columnNum; for (rowNum = 1; rowNum <=3; rowNum++) for (columnNum = 1; columnNum <=2; columnNum++) {System.out.print(" row " + rowNum + " column " + columnNum); System.out.println(); }

47 3-47 The exit Statement A break statement will end a loop or switch statement, but will not end the program The exit statement will immediately end the program as soon as it is invoked: System.exit(0); The exit statement takes one integer argument –By tradition, a zero argument is used to indicate a normal ending of the program

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