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BB20023/BB20110 DNA & disease (cancer biology) Dr. Momna Hejmadi How to access learning materials: Go to the URL above and click Yes.

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Presentation on theme: "BB20023/BB20110 DNA & disease (cancer biology) Dr. Momna Hejmadi How to access learning materials: Go to the URL above and click Yes."— Presentation transcript:

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2 BB20023/BB20110 DNA & disease (cancer biology) Dr. Momna Hejmadi How to access learning materials: Go to the URL above and click Yes to both security alert and display questions. LOGIN with your BUCS username & password. Click on the DNA and disease course listed to access all learning materials related to this unit. Any problems? me at (FIRST please ensure that you are registered to do the unit with Teresa Buckley ) https://moodle.bath.ac.uk/moodle5/login/index.php

3 EXAM essay (60%) Topics are Oncogenic viruses Apoptosis Oncogenes & Tumour suppressor genes Angiogenesis & metastasis Cancer therapy (4 lectures) How is this unit assessed? Multiple Choice Questions (20%) Nature of cancer, DNA replication, DNA damage and DNA repair 3WN 2.1 (all except NS students) 8W 2.30 (Natural Sci students) 8W 2.30 (Natural Sci students) Wed 31st OCT Lab Report (20%) Peer assessed DNA repair practical

4 The Biology of Cancer by Robert Weinberg (Garland Publishers ) Other useful books to consult Cancer Biology (2000; 2nd ed) by RJB King (Prentice Hall Publishers) DNA repair and mutagenesis (2002) by Friedberg EC, Walker g and Siede W Plus reviews / articles General Reading List

5 All lectures & practicals by MVH

6 Cancers are clonal descendents of one cell

7 Cancer arises by successive mutations in a clone of proliferating cells

8 Cancer phenotype results from accumulation of mutations in the clonal progeny of cells Clone of cells overgrows due to accumulation of mutations controlling proliferation. Disseminates through bloodstream to other parts of body Forms tumor

9 Introduction: The 6 Superpowers

10 GO STOP Normal CellCancer Cell SLOW 1 1.Most cells wait for a Go signal before dividing. Cancer cells dont bother waiting… they produce their own Go chemical messages and continue dividing. Introduction: The 6 Superpowers

11 GO STOP Normal CellCancer Cell SLOW Even if the neighbouring cells produce a Stop signal, cancer cells override these signals and continue dividing. Introduction: The 6 Superpowers

12 GO STOP Normal CellCancer Cell SLOW Normal cells sometimes react to stress by triggering a Self Destruct button and killing itself, but cancer cells sneak past these self destruct signals and continue to divide, thus accumulating more mutations. 3 Apoptosis Introduction: The 6 Superpowers

13 GO STOP Normal CellCancer Cell SLOW Apoptosis 4 Food Supply 4.Cancer cells make sure they can keep dividing by stimulating the growth of new blood vessels to keep their nutrient supply lines open. Introduction: The 6 Superpowers

14 GO STOP Normal CellCancer Cell SLOW Food Supply Apoptosis 5 Immortality 5.One of the key superpowers is immortality. Unlike normal cells which have a finite life span, cancer cells manipulate their own DNA (via repetitive DNA sequences called telomeres) to keep dividing for a lot longer. Introduction: The 6 Superpowers

15 GO STOP Normal CellCancer Cell SLOW Food Supply Immortality Apoptosis 6 Metastasis 6.Most tumours that show these traits are trouble, but the lethal nature of cancer is due to its ability to spread to other location or metastasize. 90% of cancer deaths are due to metastasis. Introduction: The 6 Superpowers

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17 General cancer phenotype includes many types of cellular abnormalities

18 Changes that produce genomic and karyotypic instability Defects in DNA replication machinery – lost capability to reproduce genome faithfully Increase rate of chromosomal aberrations – fidelity of chromosome reproduction greatly diminished

19 Changes produce genomic and karyotypic instability and often show gross rearrangements Normal cellsCancerous cells

20 Changes that produce a potential for immortality Loss of limitations on the number of cell divisions Ability to grow in culture – normal cells do not grow well in culture Restoration of telomerase activity

21 Changes that enable tumor to disrupt local tissue and invade distant tissues Ability to metastasize Angiogenesis – secrete substances that cause blood vessels to grow toward tumor Evasion of immune surveillance

22 Some cancers run in families such as retinoblastoma

23 Most cancers result from exposures to mutagens If one sibling or twin gets cancer, other usually does not Populations that migrate – profile of cancer becomes more like people indigenous to new location

24 Most cancers result from aging

25 Tumours as complex tissues

26 Reading – any one of …


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