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ALZHEIMERS Memory aids from a distributed cognition perspective By Olly Swanton Laura Misselbrook Susannah Redhead Peter Gomez-Luque PS30017 Controversies.

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Presentation on theme: "ALZHEIMERS Memory aids from a distributed cognition perspective By Olly Swanton Laura Misselbrook Susannah Redhead Peter Gomez-Luque PS30017 Controversies."— Presentation transcript:

1 ALZHEIMERS Memory aids from a distributed cognition perspective By Olly Swanton Laura Misselbrook Susannah Redhead Peter Gomez-Luque PS30017 Controversies in Cognition

2 Presentation Outline Two case studies reflecting both sides of the controversy. Dementia - Definition, Cause, Features Dementia - Definition, Cause, Features Case Study 1 - Guide Me Project Case Study 1 - Guide Me Project Controversy Controversy Distributed Cognition Distributed Cognition Memory aids Memory aids Case Study 2 - Gloucester Smart House Case Study 2 - Gloucester Smart House Conclusion and Discussion Conclusion and Discussion

3 Dementia: the Facts. Definition Definition Briggs (1989) Occurrence Occurrence Hagnell et al (1981) Cause Cause Features Features

4 Guide Me Project With the advancements of technology, its potential can be utilized in order to bring benefit to the lives of those suffering with Alzheimers. With the advancements of technology, its potential can be utilized in order to bring benefit to the lives of those suffering with Alzheimers. Guide Me Project – undertaken by Dept. of Industrial Design, University of Eindhoven. Guide Me Project – undertaken by Dept. of Industrial Design, University of Eindhoven. Integrates GPS & GSM technologies Integrates GPS & GSM technologies Locator and communication product for Alzheimers patients. Locator and communication product for Alzheimers patients.

5 Aim In the early stages of the disease, patients will suffer from temporary memory loss, also known as blackouts. In the early stages of the disease, patients will suffer from temporary memory loss, also known as blackouts. These can occur at any time and often cause the patient to lose track of their own whereabouts. These can occur at any time and often cause the patient to lose track of their own whereabouts. Becomes a worry for caregivers of the patient. Becomes a worry for caregivers of the patient.

6 Concept Non-intrusive channel Non-intrusive channel Patient can go about his/her daily life without constant supervision from caregiver. Patient can go about his/her daily life without constant supervision from caregiver. Prolong the period of care that can be administered by the caregiver Prolong the period of care that can be administered by the caregiver Delaying the admission into an Alzheimer's institute. Delaying the admission into an Alzheimer's institute.

7 Guide Me Research Interviews conducted Interviews conducted Socially active people whom want to maintain their current lifestyles. Socially active people whom want to maintain their current lifestyles. Maintain Self preservation Maintain Self preservation Accept that there are social limitations Accept that there are social limitations

8 Scenarios Scenario 1:- Scenario 1:- due to a blackout. due to a blackout. location of patient on map, with respect to where he/she is heading to. location of patient on map, with respect to where he/she is heading to. Scenario 2: Scenario 2: Emergency signal on the device. Emergency signal on the device. Provide reassurance to the caregiver and patient, in any case of emergency, that there is help at hand. Provide reassurance to the caregiver and patient, in any case of emergency, that there is help at hand.

9 Conclusions of Guide Me Project Harness GSM and GPS technologies Harness GSM and GPS technologies Simple device Simple device Living situation for the partner and patient more bearable Living situation for the partner and patient more bearable Alleviating stress Alleviating stress Ultimately, prolonging the time that a patient can stay at home Ultimately, prolonging the time that a patient can stay at home

10 Controversy! A paradox - to become more independent, and thus assure better quality of life, cognition is distributed between both caregivers and technology. A paradox - to become more independent, and thus assure better quality of life, cognition is distributed between both caregivers and technology. Independence? Ethical concerns emphasised. Independence? Ethical concerns emphasised.

11 Distributed Cognition Devised over last 12 years by Hutchins, Clark, Minsky, Lakoff. Devised over last 12 years by Hutchins, Clark, Minsky, Lakoff. Reconceptualises what is considered cognitive. Reconceptualises what is considered cognitive. Hutchins (1995) – Cognitive ethnography on board US Navy ships. Hutchins (1995) – Cognitive ethnography on board US Navy ships.

12 Three Central Tenets Caroll (2002), Hutchins (1995) Socially distributed – social organisation itself is a form of cognitive architecture Socially distributed – social organisation itself is a form of cognitive architecture Embodied – Organisation of mind an emergent property of interactions among internal/ external resources Embodied – Organisation of mind an emergent property of interactions among internal/ external resources Culturally embedded – Study of cognition not separable from study of culture Culturally embedded – Study of cognition not separable from study of culture

13 Distributed Cognition cont. New theoretical foundation for HCI New theoretical foundation for HCI Carmien 2003 - Increasing workplace independence for people with cognitive disabilities by leveraging distributed cognition among caregivers and clients. Emphasises mediating tools and social processes by which patients cognition is spread. Emphasises mediating tools and social processes by which patients cognition is spread. Support groups (social configurations) Support groups (social configurations) MAPS (Memory Aid Prompting System) MAPS (Memory Aid Prompting System)

14 Memory Aids A device or strategy which can be used by a patient suffering memory loss in order to store information or to alert a user to an event or an issue which might otherwise be forgotten. A device or strategy which can be used by a patient suffering memory loss in order to store information or to alert a user to an event or an issue which might otherwise be forgotten. Generic techniques such as paper and pen techniques Generic techniques such as paper and pen techniques Advanced electronic devices. Advanced electronic devices.

15 Definition These combinations of external representations and physical tools have greatly extended and supported peoples ability to carry out cognitive activities. (Norman, 1993) These combinations of external representations and physical tools have greatly extended and supported peoples ability to carry out cognitive activities. (Norman, 1993) Main goals which have cognitive benefits: Main goals which have cognitive benefits: 1. Externalizing to reduce memory load 1. Externalizing to reduce memory load 2. Computational Offloading 2. Computational Offloading 3.Annotating and cognitive tracing 3.Annotating and cognitive tracing

16 External Memory Aids Changes to your routine which help jog memory Diary Diary PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) Alarm Clocks/Timers Alarm Clocks/Timers Pagers Pagers Lists on Memo Boards/Post it Notes Lists on Memo Boards/Post it Notes Leaving physical items as reminders i.e. leave items you need to take with you by the front door. Leaving physical items as reminders i.e. leave items you need to take with you by the front door.

17 Wheres my house? Gloucester Smart-House Gloucester Smart-House Technology for maintaining independence Technology for maintaining independence The developmental stage The developmental stage

18 Technology in the House Bath and Basin Monitor Bath and Basin Monitor Night Light Night Light Cooker Monitor Cooker Monitor

19 Rula

20 Enable Project Evaluation of the Gloucester House Evaluation of the Gloucester House Quality of life Quality of life The carers and the sufferers The carers and the sufferers

21 Conclusion Guide Me Project – cognition distributed between caregivers and technology. Guide Me Project – cognition distributed between caregivers and technology. Smart Houses – more genuine independence. Smart Houses – more genuine independence. However – from distributed cognition perspective, others are implicated in cognition regardless of whether cognitive deficit. However – from distributed cognition perspective, others are implicated in cognition regardless of whether cognitive deficit. Iterative design process – ethical concerns can be taken into account. Iterative design process – ethical concerns can be taken into account.

22 Conclusion cont. Distributed cognition affords framework for design and evaluation of digital artefacts. Hutchins – Memory processes in airport cockpit. Distributed cognition affords framework for design and evaluation of digital artefacts. Hutchins – Memory processes in airport cockpit. However, does not address potential for learning. However, does not address potential for learning. Carmien 2003 Carmien 2003

23 References Carmien, S., Gorman, A., DePaula, R., & Kintsch, A. (2004) Increasing Workplace Independence for People with Cognitive Disabilities by Leveraging Distributed Cognition among Caregivers and Clients. ACM Portal, Vol. 13, Issue 5-6. Carmien, S., Gorman, A., DePaula, R., & Kintsch, A. (2004) Increasing Workplace Independence for People with Cognitive Disabilities by Leveraging Distributed Cognition among Caregivers and Clients. ACM Portal, Vol. 13, Issue 5-6. Department of Health, (2004) Memory Aids and techniques, Online, Available HTTP: www.mhra.gov.uk (Accessed May 2005) Department of Health, (2004) Memory Aids and techniques, Online, Available HTTP: www.mhra.gov.uk (Accessed May 2005)www.mhra.gov.uk Hollan, J., Hutchins, E. & Kirsch, D. (2000) Distributed Cognition: Toward a New Foundation for Human-Computer Interaction Research, ACM Transcations on Computer-Human Interaction, Vol. 7. No. 2. Hollan, J., Hutchins, E. & Kirsch, D. (2000) Distributed Cognition: Toward a New Foundation for Human-Computer Interaction Research, ACM Transcations on Computer-Human Interaction, Vol. 7. No. 2. Loh, J., Schietecat, T., Fai Kwok, T., & Lindeboom, L. (2004) Technology Applied to Address Difficulties of Alzheimer Patients and Their Partners. ACM Portal. Loh, J., Schietecat, T., Fai Kwok, T., & Lindeboom, L. (2004) Technology Applied to Address Difficulties of Alzheimer Patients and Their Partners. ACM Portal.

24 References 2 Briggs, R. S. J. Alzheimers Disease: The clinical context in: Davies, D.C. (Ed) (1989) Alzheimers Disease: Towards an understanding, John Libby & Company Ltd: London. Briggs, R. S. J. Alzheimers Disease: The clinical context in: Davies, D.C. (Ed) (1989) Alzheimers Disease: Towards an understanding, John Libby & Company Ltd: London. Carmien, S., Depaula, R., Gorman, A. and Kintsch, A. (2004) Increasing workplace independence for people with cognitive disabilities by leveraging distributed cognition among caregivers and clients. Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 13, pp443-470. Carmien, S., Depaula, R., Gorman, A. and Kintsch, A. (2004) Increasing workplace independence for people with cognitive disabilities by leveraging distributed cognition among caregivers and clients. Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 13, pp443-470. Loh, J., Schietecat, T., Kwok, T.F. and Lindeboom, L. (2004) Technology applied to address difficulties of Alzheimer patients and their partners. [online] ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, ACM Press: New York. Loh, J., Schietecat, T., Kwok, T.F. and Lindeboom, L. (2004) Technology applied to address difficulties of Alzheimer patients and their partners. [online] ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, ACM Press: New York. Giere, R.N. (1996) Models as parts of distributed cognitive systems. In: Magnani, L. and Nersessian, M. (2000) Model Based Reasoning: Science, Technology, Values. Kluwer University Press: New York. Giere, R.N. (1996) Models as parts of distributed cognitive systems. In: Magnani, L. and Nersessian, M. (2000) Model Based Reasoning: Science, Technology, Values. Kluwer University Press: New York.

25 References 3 Clare, L., Roth, I., Wilson, B., Carter, G. and Hodges, J. (2002) Relearning face-name associations in early Alzheimers Disease. Clare, L., Roth, I., Wilson, B., Carter, G. and Hodges, J. (2002) Relearning face-name associations in early Alzheimers Disease. Neuropsychology, 2002, Vol 16, No.4, pp538-547. Adlam, T and Orpwood, R. (2002) The Gloucester Smart House, Online Adlam, T and Orpwood, R. (2002) The Gloucester Smart House, Online Available www.dementia- voice.org.uk/projects/projects_gloucesterproject.htm (Accessed May 2005) www.dementia- voice.org.uk/projects/projects_gloucesterproject.htmwww.dementia- voice.org.uk/projects/projects_gloucesterproject.htm Preece, J. (2002) Interaction Design Preece, J. (2002) Interaction Design Wiley Press, U.K


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