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Nation, Community, Identity and Other. Outline Outline sociological, psychoanalytic and psychological accounts of the formation of identity in late modern.

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Presentation on theme: "Nation, Community, Identity and Other. Outline Outline sociological, psychoanalytic and psychological accounts of the formation of identity in late modern."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nation, Community, Identity and Other. Outline Outline sociological, psychoanalytic and psychological accounts of the formation of identity in late modern times sociological, psychoanalytic and psychological accounts of the formation of identity in late modern times role that social hatred plays in the formation of identity role that social hatred plays in the formation of identity social hatred and participation in hate crimes can create and reinforce social identity. social hatred and participation in hate crimes can create and reinforce social identity. role of peer groups, friendships and cliques role of peer groups, friendships and cliques identity formation of young men and identity formation of young men and negative labelling determines identities. negative labelling determines identities. The dark side of identity acquisition. The dark side of identity acquisition.

2 Psychological Perspectives, Erikson 1965 Identity formation main psychological task Identity formation main psychological task "identity crisis". Erikson "identity crisis". Erikson eight developmental stages in human life eight developmental stages in human life identity crisis is the most important conflict human beings encounter when they go through these stages. identity crisis is the most important conflict human beings encounter when they go through these stages.

3 Erikson Identity a subjective experience of oneself as well as a set of observable characteristics. Identity a subjective experience of oneself as well as a set of observable characteristics. Also the way that other people experience us. Also the way that other people experience us. onset of the identity crisis occurs in the teenage years. onset of the identity crisis occurs in the teenage years. Only individuals who succeed in resolving this crisis will be ready to face future challenges Only individuals who succeed in resolving this crisis will be ready to face future challenges identity crisis - recurring, identity crisis - recurring, world demands us to constantly redefine ourselves. world demands us to constantly redefine ourselves. The loss of "a sense of personal sameness and historical continuity". The loss of "a sense of personal sameness and historical continuity". A healthy subjectivity and identity something stable??? A healthy subjectivity and identity something stable???

4 Erikson and Tribal psychology Tribal psychology based on association with human subgroups rather than humanity as a whole. Tribal psychology based on association with human subgroups rather than humanity as a whole. Pseudospeciation, Pseudospeciation, Can, produce atrocities, hatreds and brutality Can, produce atrocities, hatreds and brutality Nazism a powerful form of such inhumanity. Nazism a powerful form of such inhumanity. Identifying with subgroups a two-edged sword Identifying with subgroups a two-edged sword Promotes cooperation within social groups but inhibits cooperation between groups Promotes cooperation within social groups but inhibits cooperation between groups A psychosocial theory A psychosocial theory

5 Psychoanalysis; Phantasy, Splitting and Projection. Experiences of sexual development in infanthood that shape the kind of identities we become attached to and the kinds of relationships we have with others. Experiences of sexual development in infanthood that shape the kind of identities we become attached to and the kinds of relationships we have with others. "Infantile feelings and phantasies leave, as it were, their imprints on the mind, imprints that do not fade away but get stored up, remain active, and exert a continuous and powerful influence on the emotional and intellectual life of the individual" (Klein:1975:290) "Infantile feelings and phantasies leave, as it were, their imprints on the mind, imprints that do not fade away but get stored up, remain active, and exert a continuous and powerful influence on the emotional and intellectual life of the individual" (Klein:1975:290)

6 Psychoanalysis 2 Fantasy usually associated with something imagined or unreal. Fantasy usually associated with something imagined or unreal. Phantasy, for Klein, however a defence mechanism (Segal:1992:30). Phantasy, for Klein, however a defence mechanism (Segal:1992:30). Exerts a profound influence on everyday life Exerts a profound influence on everyday life Our subjectivity, is constructed in unconscious phantasy. Our subjectivity, is constructed in unconscious phantasy. Our instincts are always attached to an object Our instincts are always attached to an object Our instincts are object seeking. Our instincts are object seeking. Phantasy is not an escape from reality, but can produce reality. Phantasy is not an escape from reality, but can produce reality. A central part of how we understand the world. A central part of how we understand the world. A world of good and bad objects are constructed through a process of projection and introjection. A world of good and bad objects are constructed through a process of projection and introjection. We take good objects into our self and project bad objects onto others. We take good objects into our self and project bad objects onto others. Splitting an unconscious process by which positive and negative impulses and feelings that are too difficult to be held together spring apart and become projected onto different people. (Clarke 2002) Splitting an unconscious process by which positive and negative impulses and feelings that are too difficult to be held together spring apart and become projected onto different people. (Clarke 2002) Split between good and bad relieves our doubt. Split between good and bad relieves our doubt. a crucial part of the way we understand the world. a crucial part of the way we understand the world. A defence against anxiety. A defence against anxiety.

7 Phantasy phantasy provides a vehicle for the construction of our own identity, phantasy provides a vehicle for the construction of our own identity, Also, through projection, the construction of Others. Also, through projection, the construction of Others. Phantasy involves doing something to some other. Phantasy involves doing something to some other. Other- an object which has become split off or separated from the self Other- an object which has become split off or separated from the self Jean-Paul Sartre's (1976) work, Anti-Semite and Jew- phantasy made reality through projective identification. Jean-Paul Sartre's (1976) work, Anti-Semite and Jew- phantasy made reality through projective identification. If the Jew did not exist, then the anti-Semite would invent him. If the Jew did not exist, then the anti-Semite would invent him. The Jew a container to hold what is dangerous and frightening. The Jew a container to hold what is dangerous and frightening. Processes of othering are central to self and group identity. Processes of othering are central to self and group identity.

8 Identity and Hatred in late modernity Identity and Hatred in late modernity Self a project Self a project identity is plastic identity is plastic what are the consequences of this plasticity and fluidity of self what are the consequences of this plasticity and fluidity of self Globalization -erosion of traditional culture Globalization -erosion of traditional culture Resurgence of aggressive nationalisms Resurgence of aggressive nationalisms Globalisation erodes national identities, traditional moral frameworks and value systems Globalisation erodes national identities, traditional moral frameworks and value systems Unifying forces of globalization and the fragmenting forces of identity politics are two sides of the same coin. Unifying forces of globalization and the fragmenting forces of identity politics are two sides of the same coin. Localization- bounded entities. Localization- bounded entities. Bounded countries (nationalism or separatism), bounded faith systems (religious revitalization), bounded cultures (linguistic or cultural movements) or bounded interest groups (ethnicity) Bounded countries (nationalism or separatism), bounded faith systems (religious revitalization), bounded cultures (linguistic or cultural movements) or bounded interest groups (ethnicity) Roland Robertson, might be glocalization. Roland Robertson, might be glocalization.

9 Identity Politics Concerns the liberation of a specific region or group that has been marginalised reclaiming of identity Concerns the liberation of a specific region or group that has been marginalised reclaiming of identity Challenges dominant oppressive discourses or structures or institutions. Challenges dominant oppressive discourses or structures or institutions. goal of greater self-determination or autonomy. goal of greater self-determination or autonomy. Examples Gay Pride, second wave feminism, Black Civil Rights Examples Gay Pride, second wave feminism, Black Civil Rights Critiques of cultural imperialism Critiques of cultural imperialism Recommends the transformation of previously stigmatised accounts of group membership. Recommends the transformation of previously stigmatised accounts of group membership. Indigenous rights movements worldwide, nationalist projects, or demands for regional self-determination and autonomy use similar arguments. Indigenous rights movements worldwide, nationalist projects, or demands for regional self-determination and autonomy use similar arguments.

10 Identity Politics and Globalisation Modernisation and globalisation may highlight differences and trigger conflict. Inequalities are made visible by globalisation Modernisation and globalisation may highlight differences and trigger conflict. Inequalities are made visible by globalisation intensified contact entailed by globalisation. intensified contact entailed by globalisation. Eriksen you do not envy your neighbour if you are unaware of his existence. Eriksen you do not envy your neighbour if you are unaware of his existence. Dangers with this argument. Dangers with this argument.

11 Cultural Difference and Nationalism Martin Barker New Racism the problematisation of cultural difference Martin Barker New Racism the problematisation of cultural difference Ethnic nationalism, politicized religion and indigenous movements all forms of identity politics Ethnic nationalism, politicized religion and indigenous movements all forms of identity politics In-group often depicted as homogeneous, In-group often depicted as homogeneous, internal differences glossed over internal differences glossed over serves the interests of the privileged segments of the group??? serves the interests of the privileged segments of the group??? Nostalgic? Nostalgic? harking back to an imaginary time of cultural harmony and economic prosperity harking back to an imaginary time of cultural harmony and economic prosperity

12 Cultural Difference & Nationalism 2 Invokes political symbolism Invokes political symbolism Uses myths, cultural symbols and kinship terminology Uses myths, cultural symbols and kinship terminology A notion of a national we or a collective us. A notion of a national we or a collective us. Social complexity in society is reduced to a set of simple contrasts. Social complexity in society is reduced to a set of simple contrasts. Internal differences ignored in the act of constructing boundaries and demonising an Other. Internal differences ignored in the act of constructing boundaries and demonising an Other.

13 Peer groups, Cliques and Sub- cultures Groups can become containers in the search for self-identity. Groups can become containers in the search for self-identity. Peer groups are markers of status, acceptance and success Peer groups are markers of status, acceptance and success Political groups, nations and religious groups help us define self against other. Political groups, nations and religious groups help us define self against other.

14 Adolescent Girls and the Policing of Identity Valerie Hey The Company She Keeps the socio- dynamics of girls freindships Valerie Hey The Company She Keeps the socio- dynamics of girls freindships micro-politics and micro-technologies of girls friendships usually dismissed as 'garbage' and 'trivial' or bitchy material. micro-politics and micro-technologies of girls friendships usually dismissed as 'garbage' and 'trivial' or bitchy material. Negotiation of friendship among girls something that is always constituted in the "socially coercive presence of the male gaze" (p. 65). Negotiation of friendship among girls something that is always constituted in the "socially coercive presence of the male gaze" (p. 65). Best friendships are the result of cultural pressure to convert wider loyalties to these individualized sources of power and regulation. Best friendships are the result of cultural pressure to convert wider loyalties to these individualized sources of power and regulation. It is through these close peers that girls regulate and are regulated It is through these close peers that girls regulate and are regulated

15 Dirty Writing, Dirty games Strong incentive to create an "other" for working class girls Strong incentive to create an "other" for working class girls Other girls made to carry the 'bad' bits of femininity". Other girls made to carry the 'bad' bits of femininity". heterosexual desire heterosexual desire "dirty writing" of girls reminds us that it's not so much that boys play "dirty little games" and girls don't (Fine, 1989; Thorne & Luria, 1986), but that boys' dirty games are permitted within public spheres and girls' must be done in private I "dirty writing" of girls reminds us that it's not so much that boys play "dirty little games" and girls don't (Fine, 1989; Thorne & Luria, 1986), but that boys' dirty games are permitted within public spheres and girls' must be done in private I

16 Otherness, transgression and normalisation a whole discourse among the girls about girls as predators a whole discourse among the girls about girls as predators "ventriloquated" voices of girls mimic masculinized discourse. "ventriloquated" voices of girls mimic masculinized discourse. girls make sense of themselves against other girls but "not in conditions of their own choosing". girls make sense of themselves against other girls but "not in conditions of their own choosing". Policing of transgression Policing of transgression girls internalise and act out hierarchies of domination and collude in their own own devaluing. girls internalise and act out hierarchies of domination and collude in their own own devaluing. Messages from 'outside' value systems are encoded in the relationships girls set up with each other. Messages from 'outside' value systems are encoded in the relationships girls set up with each other. Male meanings and put downs are available as ways of punishing 'transgressive' friendships are disciplinary. Male meanings and put downs are available as ways of punishing 'transgressive' friendships are disciplinary. This is a central part of the way that they form their identities. This is a central part of the way that they form their identities.

17 Conclusion. Groups defined in relation to an out-group. Groups defined in relation to an out-group. Mary Douglas, Matter out of Place Mary Douglas, Matter out of Place Getting rid of the other Getting rid of the other What Freud called the narcissism of minor differences. : minor, not major, diffs lead to the bitterest disputes. Inflated into lethally competing fictional identities. What Freud called the narcissism of minor differences. : minor, not major, diffs lead to the bitterest disputes. Inflated into lethally competing fictional identities. Hatred of 'otherness'. Hatred of 'otherness'. The group bond is often constructed around hatred of an out group The group bond is often constructed around hatred of an out group As Freud puts it " it is always possible to bind together a considerable number of people in love so long as 'as are other people left over to receive the manifestations of their aggressiveness' As Freud puts it " it is always possible to bind together a considerable number of people in love so long as 'as are other people left over to receive the manifestations of their aggressiveness' Minor not major differences a source of antagonism. Minor not major differences a source of antagonism.


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