2 Every sentence: begins with a CAPITAL LETTER. ends with a period (.), and exclamation mark (!), or a question mark (?).
3 Basic Sentence Structure All sentences must have…. 1- a subject (who or what is being discussed). 2- a predicate /pred-i-kit/ (has a verb and gives information about the subject). 3- a complete thought or give a message.Five boats crossed the river.SubjectPredicatecomplete thoughta sentence
4 Analyze- Put a wavy line under the subject and a straight line under the predicate. Many people were hurt in the accident. Full time jobs are becoming more and more difficult to find. Take out the garbage. That report was due last Friday.
5 How did you do?Many people were hurt in the accident. Full time jobs are becoming more and more difficult to find. Take out the garbage. You * Note: This is a command. The subject is known though it is not visible. You should not use commands with superiors (it’s like panmal). That report was due last Friday.
6 ClausesNo! Not these ClausesA clause is a part of a sentence that contains a subject and a verb. There are two main types of clauses.1- Independent2- Dependent (A.K.A subordinate clauses)
7 Independent ClausesClauses that can stand alone as their own sentence.Example: He is older than his brother.We can do it!I am an independent woman.
8 Don’t leave me IC. I can’t stand on my own! Dependent clausesDependent clauses cannot stand on their own.A dependent clause that stands alone is a sentence fragment; the most common type of error in English writing.This is an example of sentence fragment: Because he is older than his brother.Don’t leave me IC. I can’t stand on my own!ICDC
9 Becoming a Dependent Clause An independent clause, can be turned into a dependent clause when the same group of words begins with a “dependent word” (subordinating conjunction).Example: "Because he is older than his brother, he can tell him what to do.“
10 Common “dependent words” (subordinating conjunctions) after although as as if as long as as though because even if even thoughif only in order that now that once rather than since so that than thatthough till unless until when whenever where whereas wherever while
11 Quiz – Are the orange clauses independent or dependent? I don't like Mondays.She is very fit because she goes running every day.Because the test was so difficult, none of the students got a very good grade.When I lived in Tokyo, I played tennis every day.I usually do my homework while my mother is cooking dinnerAlthough she was only in grade 8, she was the best basketball player in the school.
12 I don't like Mondays. ICShe is very fit because she goes running every day. DCBecause the test was so difficult, none of the students got a very good grade. ICWhen I lived in Tokyo, I played tennis every day. DCI usually do my homework while my mother is cooking dinner. DCAlthough she was only in grade 8, she was the best basketball player in the school. IC
13 There are 4 main sentence types SimpleCompoundComplexCompound-complex
14 Simple Sentences Have only one clause. They can have more than one verb or more than one subject but they have just one clause.Example:My younger brother cooks well.My mother and father are retired.The building across from the library in the middle of campus caught fire last week.
15 Stop! Check! Write 3 simple sentences Does each sentence start with a capital letter?Does each sentence end with a . ! Or ?Does each sentence have a subject, a verb, and a complete thought?Check!
16 Compound Sentencestwo or more independent clauses (or simple sentences), joined together by coordinating conjunctions(FANBOYS), a semicolon (;), or a semicolon plus a conjunctive adverb (also, consequently, furthermore, however, otherwise, and thus).My brother lives in Alabama, and my sister lives in Oregon.We went to visit them last winter; however, we did not enjoy their company.
17 Compound SentencesTwo simple sentences can be combined to make a compound sentence:Simple: Germany is a rich country.Simple: It has many poor people.Compound: Germany is a rich country, yet it has many poor people.
18 Stop! Check! Write 3 compound sentences Does each sentence start with a capital letter?Does each sentence end with a . ! Or ?Does each sentence have a subject, a verb, and a complete thought?Does each sentence have a coordinating conjunction?Check!
19 Complex sentencesA complex sentence contains at least one independent clause and at least one dependent clause.Wherever she goes, she leaves a piece of luggage behind.“Wherever she goes,” is a dependent clause.He’s sad because he’s lonely.“because he’s lonely.” is a dependent clause.
20 Stop! Check! Write 3 complex sentences Does each dependent clause start with a subordinating conjunction?Check!
21 Simple, Compound, complex Simple: My friend invited me to a party. I don’t want to go.Compound: My friend invited me to a party, but I don’t want to go.Complex: Although my friend invited me to a party, I don’t want to go.
22 Compound-Complex sentences have two (or more) independent clauses and one (or more) dependent clausesExamples: Cherry enrolled at Sookmyung Women’s University, and Blossom,who was her younger sister, joined her there the following year.IC- Cherry enrolled at Sookmyung Women’s University.IC- Blossom joined her there the following year.DC- who was her younger sister
23 Identify the sentence type I like playing basketball, and my brother likes playing tennis.Her name is Sachiko and she comes from Japan.My mother cooked dinner while I was doing my homework.While I was doing my homework, my father cooked the dinner and my mother was asleep in front of the television.You should read every day if you want to improve your English more quickly.My family came to Germany when I was in grade 5, but I never learned to speak German very well.
24 Check your resultsI like playing basketball, and my brother likes playing tennis. CompoundHer name is Sachiko and she comes from Japan. CompoundMy mother cooked dinner while I was doing my homework. ComplexWhile I was doing my homework, my father cooked the dinner and my mother was asleep in front of the television. C-CYou should read every day if you want to improve your English more quickly. ComplexMy family came to Germany when I was in grade 5, but I never learned to speak German very well. C-C