Presentation on theme: "Mobile Learning: anytime, any place, any where, any good Richard Joiner MSc. Human Communication & Computing Communication, Interaction and Task."— Presentation transcript:
Mobile Learning: anytime, any place, any where, any good Richard Joiner MSc. Human Communication & Computing Communication, Interaction and Task
MSc. Human Communication & Computing2 Contents Mobile Learning Behaviourist Models –Skills Arena –BBC Bitesize Constructivist Models - Virus game - Savannah Situated Learning –Ambient wood
MSc. Human Communication & Computing3 Introduction Mobile technologies are very familiar. A high proportion of UK citizens have mobile phones. PDAs are becoming more widespread. There is great interest from educators to find ways the unique capabilities and characteristics of mobile technology
MSc. Human Communication & Computing4 Introduction Some educators see them as disruptive and have banned them from classes However a number of people have argued that they provide an opportunity for a fundamental change in education. Away from the occasional use of a computer in a lab to the more embedded use in the classroom and beyond
MSc. Human Communication & Computing5 Introduction The concept of learning is closely coupled to the concept of mobility It is mobile with respect –space –time –areas of life
MSc. Human Communication & Computing6 Introduction Klopfer identified 5 reasons why mobile devices could be useful in education –portability –social interactivity –context sensitivity –connectivity –individulality
MSc. Human Communication & Computing7 Models of learning Wireless Internet Learning Devices or WILDs –Learning as skill acquisition –Learning as self construction –Learning as social participation
MSc. Human Communication & Computing8 Behaviourist Learning as skill acquisition A number examples of mobile learning used to provide anytime anywhere learning using behaviourist techniques –Skills arena –BBC Bitesize
MSc. Human Communication & Computing9 Skills Arena Skills arena is a mathematics video game using Nintendo Game Boy Advance. It supplements traditional curricula and teaching methods Drills in addition and subtraction are presented as a game, with advanced scoring and record keeping, character creation and variable difficulty level.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing11 Skills Arena An initial pilot study found that –Students completed 3 times as many worksheets –Teachers found it easy to administer and control –Students used it outside class
MSc. Human Communication & Computing12 BBC Bitesize BBC Bite size is an initiative to provide revision material via mobile phones http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesi ze/games/http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesi ze/games/ They use a downloadable java game.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing13 BBC Bitesize It is very popular over 650,000 gcse students Problems –content not relevant to what the students had studied –lack of detailed feedback –compatibility across devices –costs
MSc. Human Communication & Computing14 Constructivist Learning is seen as a process of reorganisation of cognitive structures A number examples of mobile learning based on these principles –Virus Game –Savannah
MSc. Human Communication & Computing15 Virus Game Participatory simulations (Colella, 2000) utilise the availability of a separate device for each student and the capability for simple exchanges among neighbouring students.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing17 Virus Game They enable students to act as agents in simulations Patterns emerge from local decisions and information exchanges. These simulations enable students to model and learn about scientific phenomena relating to decentralised systems.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing18 Virus Game A prototypical example is modelling the spread of disease (Colella, 1998, 2000).
MSc. Human Communication & Computing20 Virus Game Colella (2000) evaluated it with 16 10 th graders. The teacher also participated in the activities and the researcher facilitated. All students start the simulation clear of disease, except 1 who has the disease. As students move around their mobile devices exchange messages.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing21 Virus Game Consequently the infection can spread. A record of the number of infections over time is displayed as a graph. Students then discuss the results Design experiments to see if they can control the disease (e.g. they can quarantine the infected parties).
MSc. Human Communication & Computing22 Virus Game It was part of a biology class and consisted of approximately 5 class periods over a 3 week period. On the first day students were introduced to the technology
MSc. Human Communication & Computing23 Virus Game On days 2, 3, and 4 students participated in disease simulations Discussed the simulation Developed and carried out experiments to test their hypotheses. On day 5 they reflected on their experiences in the PS studies.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing24 Virus Game Students displayed were willing to suspend their disbelief and behave as though the simulation activity was real. Each time it was like a real life epidemic. The students had to figure out what was going on.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing25 Virus Game Students could run experiments using the PS. They could explore the underlying rules of the simulation by altering their own behaviours and observing the effects of those alterations on the outcomes. Interestingly these experiment required the participation of all the students.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing26 Savannah Game Another type of participatory similuation is Savannah The children play at being a pride of lions outside in a playing field Interacting with a virtual Savannah and exploring the opportunities and risks to lions in that space
MSc. Human Communication & Computing27 Savannah Game Outside the children are given global positioning systems (GPS) linked personal digital assistants (PDAs) The PDAs enable them to see, hear and smell the world of the Savannah They navigate the real space outdoors. as lions in the virtual Savannah.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing31 Savannah Game The children involved in the project were all from year 7 and were aged between 11 and 12. There were two groups: one group of five boys (day 1) and one group of five girls (day 2). There were two areas: the playing field and the den
MSc. Human Communication & Computing32 Savannah Game The game consisted of two challenges. In challenge 1, the children were told that they were a lion pride who had recently been displaced and had just arrived in a new area of the Savannah. They had to get to know this area, understand what was in it, and identify various threats and opportunities.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing33 Savannah Game During this phase the children could NOT kill or be killed and so could freely explore the virtual Savannah. The children took two searches to fully explore the virtual Savannah outside. After each search the children went back to the Den and discussed with the teacher what they had found.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing34 Savannah Game The children used the flip chart paper to create a map of what they found They used the interactive white board to revisit their movements Examine where they had not searched and discuss how they could improve their search techniques
MSc. Human Communication & Computing35 Savannah Game In Challenge 2, the children were told by the teacher that they had to learn to survive in the Savannah. In this challenge the children could both die (if for example they attacked the wrong animal alone..) and hunt, and their energy points would increase or decrease depending upon their actions.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing36 Savannah Game After each phase the children went back in the Den and discussed with the teacher what had happened and what they could do differently in the next game. At the end of the day the children had a discussion with the teacher about what they had learnt.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing37 Savannah Game Video of the game
MSc. Human Communication & Computing38 Savannah Game They identifiedas lions and found it highly engaging. The students often talked in the game as if they were directly experiencing the simulation. During play, they exclaim that Im nearly dead, were hot, were attacking Im dead.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing39 Savannah Game Students were beginning to understand the rules that shape lion behaviour in the wild. For example, a key feature of lion behaviour is quantification of risk Lions encountering lions from another pride will count the numbers of their opponents before deciding to fight
MSc. Human Communication & Computing40 Savannah Game These features were all built into the game rules, with energy points awarded or deducted for children making the correct calculations. This sort of behaviour was encouraged by the game and was evident in the childrens play after their initial attempts.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing41 Savannah Game Another example was the realisation that survival was dependent on working in groups. The children began to coordinate their attacks They also began to become aware of the threats of human habitationa nd other animals
MSc. Human Communication & Computing42 Savannah Game However they also learnt certain rules about the games environment that in fact conflicted with lion behaviour Hunting strategies were very simple in the Savannah game There was an overemphasis on killing prey.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing43 Situated Learning The portability of mobile technology allows the learning environment to be extended beyond the classroom into authentic and appropriate contexts. One example is ambient wood
MSc. Human Communication & Computing44 Ambient Wood Ambient wood built on the benefits of incorporating physicality and tangibility into learning. Digital information was coupled with novel arrangements of electronically embedded physical objects. The experience was designed for 10-12 year olds.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing45 Ambient Wood A series of activities were designed around the topic of habitats. Focussing on the plants and animals in the different habitats of woodland and the relationship between them The learning experience has three stages
MSc. Human Communication & Computing46 Ambient Wood Exploring and discovering –The children equipped with a PDA explored the habitat. –They could use the PDA to find out about growing processes, feeding behaviours and organisms dependencies. –The PDA gave information either in response to probes or triggered by the childrens location.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing47 Ambient Wood
MSc. Human Communication & Computing48 Ambient Wood
MSc. Human Communication & Computing49 Ambient Wood Medium Moisture Level High Light Level
MSc. Human Communication & Computing50 Ambient Wood –A periscope gave them information about hidden processes, such as the behaviour of insects –The aim was to provide abstracted information (visual and audio) of life cycles already present in the woodland.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing51 Ambient Wood
MSc. Human Communication & Computing52 Ambient Wood Reflecting –Following the exploratory stage, the pairs of children were brought together and taken into a den (a makeshift outdoor classroom-like setting), where a large computer monitor and shared interactive display were provided –The aim was to provide a collaborative neutral environment that would allow them to report back to each other and reflect and consolidate their findings.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing53 Ambient Wood –The goal was to enable the children to step back from the physical action and to think more explicitly and holistically about –The collection of readings they had collected in relation to the two habitats and the processes and relationships between the organisms within the habitats.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing54 Ambient Wood
MSc. Human Communication & Computing55 Ambient Wood Experimentation –Following stage 2, the children were told that they were going back into the woodland to do some experimenting, and in particular to see what would happen if the two habitats were changed in some way. –A hypothetical scenario was presented to them initially to think about what would happen if an acorn was planted in the middle of each of the habitats.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing56 Ambient Wood –This is something that they would be able to easily imagine in the context of what they had just experienced in the wood and already knew about habitats. –A key question for them to consider was whether it would thrive in the two different habitats and what effect it would have on the other organisms.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing57 Ambient Wood Ambient wood was trialled with 16 11 year olds. It provided an engaging activity They understood the relationship between the activity and the digital readings
MSc. Human Communication & Computing58 Ambient Wood The periscope provided an intuitive metaphor for understanding that they were looking at phenomena that was hidden from view. The triggering of information by the childs presence was less successful. Often went unnoticed. Stage 2 enabled the children to consolidated their knowledge and stage 3 was fun and tested the childrens knowledge.
MSc. Human Communication & Computing59 Summary Mobile Learning Behaviourist Models –Skills Arena –BBC Bitesize Constructivist Models - Virus game - Savannah Situated Learning –Ambient wood