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Multi-Scale Behaviour in the Geo- Science I: The Onset of Convection and Interfacial Instabilities by Hans Mühlhaus The Australian Computational Earth Systems Simulator (ACcESS)

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Overview What is Geodynamics Mantle Convection, Spreading, Folding, Landscape Evolution, Earthquakes, Volcanoes The onset of Natural Convection: Linear instability analysis Numerical Simulations Nusselt Number Remarks on Weakly Non-Linear Analysis Galerkin methods

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hot spot subducting plate lithosphere asthenosphere shield volcano strato volcano trench convergent plate boundary convergent plate boundary oceanic spreading ridge divergent plate boundary transform plate boundary island arc continental crust oceanic crust Earth dynamics

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TERRA MESH

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BENEFITS Earth dynamics hot spot subducting plate lithosphere asthenosphere shield volcano strato volcano trench convergent plate boundary convergent plate boundary oceanic spreading ridge divergent plate boundary transform plate boundary island arc continental crust oceanic crust

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2 nd talk: Volcano modelling Montserrat, West Indies

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3rd talk: Particle Processes –Spherical particles –Selection of contact physics: –Non-rotational and rotational dynamics –Friction interactions –Linear elastic interactions –Bonded interactions

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4 th talk: modeling of geological folds Director evolution n : the director of the anisotropy W, W n : spin and director spin D, D : stretching and its deviatoric part

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Governing Equations Navier Stokes Equations: Heat Equation: v(t,x) is the velocity vector, T is the temperature, kg/m 2 ) is the density, Pas) is the viscosity, c p (10 -3 WK -1 s/kg) is the specific heat at constant pressure and k (4Wm -1 K -1 ) is the thermal conductivity

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Governing Equations, cont. Temperature dependence of density: Simplified convection model: p ( K -1 ) is the thermal expansion coefficient, T 0 (288K) is the surface temperature x1x1 x2x2 T=T 1, v 2 =0 T=T 0, v 2 =0 T, 1, v 1 =0 H L

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Consider a square planet……

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Governing Equations, cont. Nondimensionalisation: Raleigh Number: Prandtl Number: Relevant limit in Geophysics: Insertion and dropping tildes…..

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Governing Equations, cont. Stream function and In this way we satisfy the incompressibility constraint div v=0 identically. Insertion into the velocity equations and the heat equation, assuming infinite Prandtl number gives: and Dropping nonlinear terms and insert the Ansatz, gives: andThus

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Marginal instability: For m=1 we obtain: H L1

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Finite Element Approximations… Ra=10 4, mesh: 128X128

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The Nusselt Number Definition: It can be shown that for zero normal velocity b.c.s and fixed top and bottom Temperature

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The Nusselt Number Hint for derivation of Nu-Power relationship form And apply Gausss Theorem. For the given b.c.s it follows that

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Finite Element Approximations… Ra=10 4, mesh: 128X128 Nusselt Number

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Finite Element Approximations… Ra=10 5, mesh: 128X128

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Finite Element Approximations… Ra=10 5, mesh: 128X128 Nusselt Number

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Finite Element Approximations… Ra=10 6, mesh: 128X128

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Finite Element Approximations… Ra=10 6, mesh: 128X128 Nusselt Number

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Finite Element Approximations… Ra=10 7, mesh: 128X128

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Finite Element Approximations… Ra=10 7, mesh: 128X128 Nusselt Number

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Galerkin Method We consider the ansatz: Insert into: and We obtain: and

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Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities RT fingers evident in the Crab Nebula Consider two fluids of different densities, the heaviest above the lightest. An horizontal interface separates the two fluids. This situation is unstable because of gravity. Effectively, if the interfaces modified then a pressure want of balance grows. Equilibrium can be found again tanks to surface tension that's why there is a competition between surface tension and gravity. Surface tension is stabilizing instead gravity is destabilizing for this configuration.

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Benchmark Problem Methodmesh γ0γ0 (v rms ) max reached at t= van Kekencoarse van Kekenfine Particle-in- cell 1024 el Particle-in- cell 4096 el Level set5175 el Rayleigh-Taylor instability benchmark

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Linear Instability Analysis Equilibrium to be satisfied in ground state at time t=t0 and at t0+dt: Ground state: n Continued Equilibrium: Stokes equation:

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Linear Instability Analysis n Or, considering the incompressibility constraint :

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Linear Instability Analysis: Boundary and interface conditions We assume that the velocities are zero on top and bottom; on the sides we assume that v1=0 and i.e. symmetry boundary. On the interface the velocities as well as the natural boundary terms have to be continuous. Natural b.c.s: replace n as well as its time derivative have to be continuous on the interface By. The vector in

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Linear Instability Analysis: Boundary and interface conditions We assume that the velocities are zero on top and bottom; on the sides we assume that v1=0 and i.e. symmetry boundary. On the interface the velocities as well as the natural boundary terms have to be continuous. Natural b.c.s n Or: Result:

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Exercises 1. The normal component of the surface velocity of a 2D half plane reads. The half plane is occupied by a Stokes fluid with the viscosity The normal stress is obtained as. Show that. 2. Consider a Rayleigh-Taylor instability problem involving 2 infinite half-planes; i.e.. The normal velocity of the Interface reads. Show that. Hint: Use the relationship for a gravity free Half-plane and note that.

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Exercises (folding) w

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Exercise (folding) cont.

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Excercise 4: Solve convection equations and using the perturbation expansion up to terms of order. Hint: 1.Insert into pdes, collect coefficients of and 2.Individual coefficients must be equal to zero. Get etc and T 3 are a little bit harder to get since the pdes contain inhomogeneous terms which are proportional to (

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Perturbation solution for the weakly nonlinear problem 4.We require a solubility condition (Fredholms alternative) In the present case this just means that the coefficient of the resonant inhomogeneous term must vanish. The coefficient has the form of an ode which can be written as: a Ra Ra crit

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