2 Why was this period referred to as “The Middle Ages”?
3 It was the period between two very important times…the Fall of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance. In the middle – The Middle AgesMany people thought that nothing important happened during this period. They were wrong!
5 Northern EuropeMany people settled in towns along the rivers. In the open fields around the cities, a variety of crops were grown on the fertile soils. The flat land made farming and transportation easier, but it also had a major drawback. What happened because there were no mountains?
6 INVASIONS!There were no mountains in Northern Europe for protection against invaders. The most frightening invaders of all were the Vikings from Scandinavia. The Vikings could sail their ships up rivers, so the raids weren’t limited to the coastal areas. The attacks were swift and savage, and Europeans lived in terror of Viking raids.
7 Europe After The Fall of Rome Europe was a dangerous place after Rome fell..CHAOS!
8 Without the Roman government, Europe had no central authority to keep order.
9 Violence was common. People looked for ways to bring order to their lives.
10 The rulers of these states, usually warlords, called themselves kings The rulers of these states, usually warlords, called themselves kings. These kings often fought among themselves.
11 The creation of these kingdoms marked the beginning of the Middle Ages.
12 7.6.3 Student Learning Objective The students will summarize how feudalism provided a social, political, and economic structure for Medieval Europe on a graphic organizer.
13 Focus Question:What was feudalism and why was it important?
18 For protection against invasions. Frankish kings were unable to defend their empire.Nobles had to defend their own lands because they couldn’t depend on protection from the kings.To defend their lands, nobles hired knights, warriors who fought on horseback.
19 WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR Defeated the English king in the Battle of Hastings.Declared himselfthe new king ofEngland.To reward hisknights for theirpart in victory,he gave themland. Thatmarked thebeginning ofFEUDALISM.
20 What was a knight who promised to support a lord in exchange for land called?
21 A vassal. This was the heart of feudalism. SERVICELAND
28 A lord. Lived more comfortably than other people on the manor. A businessman.His word was law on the manor.Had servants and alarge house, but lifeis still not easy.Collected taxesfrom people wholived on the manor.Lords who surviveddiseases faced thepossibility of beingkilled in war.
29 What were the large estates owned by the lords called?
33 WHO DO YOU THINK???!!! THE PEASANTS AND SERFS Peasants were poor Serfs were not slaves, but were tied to the land.Peasants were poorworkers. They werenot tied to the land.Some asked to beserfs for protection.
34 WHAT MADE LAND VALUABLE? The people who worked it…the peasants.In return, they received protection too.When the peasants left, land lost value.
36 Women in the Middle Ages Fewer rights (surprise, right?)Had to obey the wishes of their fathers or husbands.But, women still had important ROLES in society.
37 Women in the Middle Ages Peasant womenworked to supporttheir families.Noblewomen ranmanors when their husbands were gone.Noblewomen ranmanor householdsand supervisedservants.Some women whowanted power andinfluence joined theChristian Church.
38 ELEANOR OF AQUITAINE One of the most powerful people of the Middle Ages.Was a noblewomanwho had great politicalpower.Became Queenof France when shemarried King Louis VII.Divorced Louisand became Queen ofEngland when shemarried King Henry II.
39 Towns and Trade Grow As Europe’s food Until 1,000 most people lived on manors orsmall farms.As Europe’s foodsupply grew, sodid it’s population.As the populationgrew, so did trade.New technologyin farming led tolarger harvests.
40 THE DECLINE OF FEUDALISM Serfs and peasants left their manors for towns, slowly weakening themanor system. REMEMBER…the land was only valuable if it wasworked.Do you think the Lords of the Manor were far behind? No! They werealready skilled businessmen, so they moved to town and becamemerchants.