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Does playing video games improve childrens learning? Presented by Yohan Kim 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Does playing video games improve childrens learning? Presented by Yohan Kim 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Does playing video games improve childrens learning? Presented by Yohan Kim 1

2 Students attitude to game and learning Video games and metaphors of learning Effects of playing video games Exploring new identities and new practices Obstacles to the use of games in school to overcome 2 Contents

3 When kids play video games they experience a much more powerful form of learning than when they are in the classroom… The secret of a video game as a teaching machine isnt its 3D graphics but its underlying architecture. Each level dances around the outer limits of one players abilities, seeking at every point to be hard enough to be just doable 3 Gee (2003) writes:

4 The military was one of the first to recognise the potential of games for training. The US military has developed a video game called America s Army which is used as a tool for recruitment. Free to download for anyone interested. Background


6 Students attitude to games and learning


8 In 2002, $16.9 billion with 3.3 million games consoles being sold in the UK alone [ELSPA 2003] Digital gaming is a $10 billion per year industry, projected to reach $29 billion by 2007. Whether or not we play games, gaming has become part of our culture 8 Gaming industry

9 A 2001 survey [ESA] produced 4 main reasons for game play: 1. Its fun -87% 2. Games are challenging 72% 3. Games are an interactive social experience that can be shared with friends and family 42% 4. Games provide a lot of entertainment value for the money 36% 9 4 main reasons for game play

10 Possible source of learning aggressive behaviour - The General Aggression Model - The Catharsis Theory Reinforcing stereotypical views of people Addiction Also, teachers and parents were reluctant to set aside time for playing video games because these skills were not part of the assessment criteria. Negative effects of game

11 11 Examples of addiction

12 * In order to understand the potential of vide games for learning we need to consider what is meant by learning. Acquisition metaphor: learning as the acquisition of knowledge Participation metaphor: learning as participation in a community of practice Video Games and Metaphors of Learning

13 Shaffer et al (2005) argue that video games WILL transform education Video games are important because they let people participate in new worlds They let people think, talk and act in new ways. Inhabit roles that are otherwise inaccessible to them Video games and situated understanding

14 These virtual worlds are what make video games such powerful contexts for learning. They support the development of situated understanding Video games and situated understanding

15 Video games are a social phenomena Video games as a set of social practices Video Games and Community of Practices Improving ICT skills Shaffer et al call them epistemic games What video games provide us


17 Developing games that simultaneously build situated understanding effective social practice powerful identities shared values ways of thinking is no easy matter What Epistemic Games can enhance?

18 Two broad aims: 1. To promote the spiritual, moral, cultural, mental and physical development of pupils at the school and of society 2. To prepare pupils at the school for the opportunities, responsibilities and experiences of adult life. * Excellence and Enjoyment strategy launched in 2003 The National curriculum

19 National surveys conducted primary and secondary teachers and school children aged 11-16. 3 different games used for case studies. Proved commercial games can be used for education. Futurelab research

20 1. Generational divide between teachers and students in respect of computer games play. 2. Teachers and students are open to the idea of using games in formal curricular contexts. 3. Similar perceptions about the advantages and disadvantages of using games between the groups 4. The main barriers of using games are not matching with the curriculum or assessment, but technical issues Key messages from surveys

21 Prensky (2001) argues the difference between computer learning and book learning: Twitch speed vs conventional speed Parallel processing vs linear processing Graphics first vs text first Random access vs step by step Connected vs standalone Active vs passive Play vs work Payoff vs patience Fantasy vs reality Technology as friend vs technology as foe 21 The new & old

22 Recent research has looked at whether video games can support learning in schools McFarlane et al, 2002 encountered a number of obstacles to the use of video games in schools 1. difficult for teachers to identify the relevance of a video game to the curriculum 2. difficult in persuading other stakeholders of the potential benefits of video games 3. lack of time for teachers to familiarise themselves to the game 4. the amount of irrelevant content or functionality in the game 5. the amount of time for teachers and students to orientate themselves 22 Learning with games inside school

23 Teachers recognised that these games could support childrens learning of strategic planning communication application of numbers negotiating skills 23 Learning with games inside school

24 Pros and cons of playing video game has identified in regard to learning. Playing computer games is encouraging young people to learn in different ways from those valued in the school setting. Video games provide a model of doing in order to learn, rather than learning in order to do. Learning is at its most vibrant when it has relevance to the learner (McFarlane 1997) If right amount of support given, both by teachers and parents, games can be the most effective learning tool for pupils. Conclusion

25 1. Elston, C. (2007) Using ICT in the Primary School, London: Paul Chapman Publishing 2. Gee, J. (2003) Highscore Ecucation: Games not school are teaching kids to think. Wired, 11, 5 3. McFarlane, A., Sparrowhawk, A. & Healde, Y. (2002) Report on the Educational Use of Games. TEEM [Teachers Evaluating Educational material] 4. Merlin, J. (2006) All in the Game, Education Guardian,,1969493,00.html [Accessed on 29/3/08],,1969493,00.html 5. Shaffer, D.W., Squire, D.D., Halverson, R., & Gee, J.P. (2005) Video Games and the Future of Learning. pdf [Accessed on 29/3/08] pdf 6. Teaching with games: Students attitude to game and learning –Topline Survey results WG_students_survey.pdf [Accessed on 29/3/08] WG_students_survey.pdf 25 References

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