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Can Electronic Communication Technology Improve The Outcome Of Negotiation? Anna S. Emmanuel E. Georgie B.

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Presentation on theme: "Can Electronic Communication Technology Improve The Outcome Of Negotiation? Anna S. Emmanuel E. Georgie B."— Presentation transcript:

1 Can Electronic Communication Technology Improve The Outcome Of Negotiation? Anna S. Emmanuel E. Georgie B.

2 Technologies…are playing an increasingly important role in decision making by facilitating communication, collaboration, and coordination among workers at a single as well as dispersed locationsTechnologies…are playing an increasingly important role in decision making by facilitating communication, collaboration, and coordination among workers at a single as well as dispersed locations (Shirani et al. 1999).

3 Definitions Negotiation- joint decisions by parties with different preferences (Bazerman, 2002)Negotiation- joint decisions by parties with different preferences (Bazerman, 2002) Collaboration- the interaction among a number of people to achieve a single goal or set of goals (Collins dictionary)Collaboration- the interaction among a number of people to achieve a single goal or set of goals (Collins dictionary)

4 Communication Communication involves the use of symbols (Gudykunst & Kim 1984) Symbols NOT limited to words.Symbols NOT limited to words. 60% of communication nonverbal60% of communication nonverbal 2-levels of interpretation: content & context (Watzlawick, Beavin and Jackson 1967) (Watzlawick, Beavin and Jackson 1967) Influences on effective communication: -Feedback-Multiple cues (Valacich & Schwenk 1995)

5 Mediums of communication FACE-TO-FACE Synchronous Synchronous communication communication Physical presence Physical presence Abundant verbal Abundant verbal Abundant Non- verbal social cues Abundant Non- verbal social cues Tan, Bretherton, Kennedy (2004) SYNCHRONOUSCOMPUTERCONFERENCING (instant messenger) Synchronous Synchronouscommunication Lack of physical Lack of physicalpresence Diminished nonverbal Diminished nonverbal social cues Lack of verbal social cues Lack of verbal social cuesEMAIL Asynchronous Asynchronouscommunication Lack of physical Lack of physicalpresence Minimal non-verbal Minimal non-verbal social cues Lack of verbal Lack of verbal social cues

6 Face-2-face vs. Electronic Immediate two way flow of informationImmediate two way flow of information Access to non verbal cues = less potential for misunderstandingsAccess to non verbal cues = less potential for misunderstandings Personal contact = TRUSTPersonal contact = TRUST Anonymity = Extreme – Unconventional – Risky decisionsAnonymity = Extreme – Unconventional – Risky decisions (Kiesler & Sproull, 1992)(Kiesler & Sproull, 1992) More delaysMore delays SatisfactionSatisfaction

7 Face-2-face vs. Electronic… continued Cross-border communicationCross-border communication AnonymityAnonymity History of offer exchangesHistory of offer exchanges TimeTime Eliminate -ve affective cues (Carmel et al. 1993)Eliminate -ve affective cues (Carmel et al. 1993) Supportive softwareSupportive software

8 Case Study Tan, Bretherton & Kennedy (2004)Tan, Bretherton & Kennedy (2004) The University of Melbourne & International Conflict Resolution Centre Mediums of communication:Mediums of communication: –Synchronous computer conferencing –E-mail –Face-to-face

9 Case Study Study examined successful negotiation outcomeStudy examined successful negotiation outcome 2 Styles: -Integrative: collaborative and multilateral -Distributive: competitive and unilateral Hypothesis: Face-to-face highest integrative results and e-mail lowest integrative resultsHypothesis: Face-to-face highest integrative results and e-mail lowest integrative results Method:Method: -Role play negotiation (N=98) -Three groups & different time frames

10 Results Tan, Bretherton, Kennedy (2004)

11 Conclusion Case study suggests that the negative effects of e-negotiation are overestimatedCase study suggests that the negative effects of e-negotiation are overestimated Richness of medium is reduced with e- negotiationsRichness of medium is reduced with e- negotiations LimitationsLimitations

12 The Future… Further developments in video-conferencing, multiple mediums, supportive softwareFurther developments in video-conferencing, multiple mediums, supportive software Context specific medium of communicationContext specific medium of communication Reducing the digital divide – access for allReducing the digital divide – access for all

13 As organisations respond to the globalisation of markets by expanding around the world, face- to-face communications will have to give way to technology mediated communications.As organisations respond to the globalisation of markets by expanding around the world, face- to-face communications will have to give way to technology mediated communications. (Moore et al, 1999)

14 References Bazerman, M.H. (2002). Judgement in Managerial decision Making (5 th edition). Chichester, John Wiley & Sons.Bazerman, M.H. (2002). Judgement in Managerial decision Making (5 th edition). Chichester, John Wiley & Sons. Carmel, E, Herniter, B.C. & Nunamaker, J.F. (1993) Labour-Management Contract Negotiations in an electronic meeting room: A case study, Group Decision and Negotiation, Vol. 2, pp. 27-60.Carmel, E, Herniter, B.C. & Nunamaker, J.F. (1993) Labour-Management Contract Negotiations in an electronic meeting room: A case study, Group Decision and Negotiation, Vol. 2, pp. 27-60. Gudykunst, W.B. & Kim, Y.Y. (1984) Communicating with Strangers. An approach to intercultural communication, New York, Random House.Gudykunst, W.B. & Kim, Y.Y. (1984) Communicating with Strangers. An approach to intercultural communication, New York, Random House. Kiesler, S & Sproull, L. (1992) Group Decision Making and Communication Technology, Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 52, pp. 96-123.Kiesler, S & Sproull, L. (1992) Group Decision Making and Communication Technology, Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 52, pp. 96-123.

15 Moore, D.A., Kurtzberg, T.R., & Thompson, L.L. (1999). Long and Short Routes to success in electronically negotiations: group affiliations and good vibrations. Organisational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 77, No. 1, January, pp. 22-43.Moore, D.A., Kurtzberg, T.R., & Thompson, L.L. (1999). Long and Short Routes to success in electronically negotiations: group affiliations and good vibrations. Organisational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 77, No. 1, January, pp. 22-43. Shirani, A.I., Tafti, M.H.A., & Affisco, J.F.(1999) Task and technology fit: a comparison of two technologies for synchronous and asynchronous group communication. Information & Management, Vol. 36, January, pp. 139-150.Shirani, A.I., Tafti, M.H.A., & Affisco, J.F.(1999) Task and technology fit: a comparison of two technologies for synchronous and asynchronous group communication. Information & Management, Vol. 36, January, pp. 139-150. Tan, J., Bretherton, D., & Kennedy, G. (2004). Negotiating Online.Tan, J., Bretherton, D., & Kennedy, G. (2004). Negotiating Online. http://www.odr.info/unforum2004/tan.htm Valacich, J.S. & Schwenk, C. (1995) Devils Advocacy and Dialectical Inquiry Effects on Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Group Decision Making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 63, No. 2, August, pp. 158-173.Valacich, J.S. & Schwenk, C. (1995) Devils Advocacy and Dialectical Inquiry Effects on Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Group Decision Making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 63, No. 2, August, pp. 158-173. Watzlawick, P., Beavin, J. and Jackson, D. (1967) The Pragmatics of Human Communication, New York, Norton.Watzlawick, P., Beavin, J. and Jackson, D. (1967) The Pragmatics of Human Communication, New York, Norton.


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