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Whats the use of chaos? Chris Budd
Is life predictable or unpredictable? Can we tell what is going to happen In the next second? In the next hour? In the next year? Does nature have an underlying order and pattern?
First answer …. YES! If we look we can see order and pattern all around us ….. Science is the search for order and pattern in the universe
The animal world
The motion of the planets
Galileo Pisa One of the first to realise this
1600 Galileo watched a pendulum swing and realised that it was governed by predictable laws Swing time of the pendulum was constant Regardless of how it was pushed Or where it was Or when
1686 In the Principia Newton showed that this order and pattern could be expressed by using mathematics Pendulum equation
Key idea …. Write down the equations describing a physical system Solve the equations Predict the future Does this work?
Neptune: discovered by maths Newtons law of gravitation
Weather forecasting Navier-Stokes equations
Laplaces prediction … If we were to know the exact position of every particle in the universe then we could predict the future with certainty No room here for free will!
Lots of natural and human events seem to be very unpredictable!! Do you feel lucky?
Clouds and the weather (after a week)
El Nino Ocean temperature Year Climate change
The stock market
Does this complex behaviour arise because nature is really complicated and unexplainable does it arise naturally from Newtons laws??? Or …….
The Double Pendulum Motion can be Periodic in phase : predictable Periodic out of phase : predictable Chaotic : unpredictable
Newtons laws apply to the double pendulum! Angle of top part Angle of bottom part
Chaos Simple rules can lead to complex and unpredictable behaviour
Poincare: discoverer of chaos
The problems of being a town planner
Population of the town in the year n Can we relate this years population: To next years population: Can we predict the population of a town? Year Population
Malthus …. a = 1 … population stays constant a > 1 … population increases a < 1 … population decreases Birthrate/Deathrate
Problem … population runs out of resources Improved model proposed by May Maximum population What does this predict?
a = 2 Single point
a = 3 Two points
a = 3.55 8 points
a = 3.8 Chaos
So, whats the use of chaos?
Chaos: Simple rules can give complex patterns Barnsley fractal fern
Mandlebrot set Fractal mountain Computer graphics
Turbulence: da Vinci New understanding of nature
Motion of the asteroids
Chaos is the science of the 21 st Century!
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Gravity and Motion. Gravity is what gives the universe its _________ A universal force that acts on _________ the objects in the universe Every particle.
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The Foundations of Science Nature everywhere obeys the same simple laws.
Admin stuff. Questionnaire Name Math courses taken so far General academic trend (major) General interests What about Chaos interests you the most?
Announcements 50 students have still not registered and joined our class on Astronomy Place. The assignments for Wednesday is the tutorial “Orbits & Kepler’s.
As stated on physiscsclassroom. com Newton's second law of montion pertains to the behaviour of objects for which all existing forces are not balanced.
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