Presentation on theme: "MASS TRANSFER TO SPHERE AND HEMISPHERE ELCTRODES BY IMPINGING JET"— Presentation transcript:
1MASS TRANSFER TO SPHERE AND HEMISPHERE ELCTRODES BY IMPINGING JET Eiran Kochavi, Yoram Oren, Abraham Tamir, Tuvia Kravchik BEN-GURION UNIVERSITY OF THE NEGEV, FACULTY OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, BEER-SHEVA, ISRAEL
2The goals of this work:Characterization of mass transfer rates to sphere and hemisphere electrodes, under impinging jet of solution.Characterization of mass transfer with both electrodes in two systems: submerged in the electrolyte solution and unsubmerged.Development of theoretical model that characterizes the system of impinging jet to electrodes.
3The goals of this work (con’d): Comparison between experimental and theoretical limiting currentsPrediction of flow and concentration profiles at complex geometry system by using numerical simulation program (PHOENICS) with the proper boundary conditions.
5ResultsMass transfer coefficients increased as we increased the linear velocity of the electrolyte jet at the nozzle exitMass transfer coefficients for the submerged hemisphere electrode, are higher than the coefficients for a sphere electrode.
6ResultsMass transfer coefficients decrease by increasing the nozzle-electrode distance. However, the influence is more pronounced at smaller distances
8Theoretical model and PHOENICS settings The grid distribution was divided into two sections (in Y-axis):1- Near the electrode surface (20 cells) the distribution was according to a power-law expanding grid2- In the electrolyte bulk (20 cells) the distribution was according to a uniform grid
9Theoretical model and PHOENICS settings (cont’d) The model employed a 41x37 grid cells (BFC) in the y-z plane.The cells region was divided into two frames:1- zone where the solution flows out of the nozzle. The method of the interpolation of internal points was transfinite (TRANS)
10Theoretical model and PHOENICS settings(cont’d) 2- zone where the solution impinging the electrode and flows over it to the outlet. The method of the interpolation of internal points was “Laplace”-like equation (LAP).
11Concentration profile of impinging jet over a submerged sphere electrode
12Flow vectors map of impinging jet over a submerged sphere electrode
13Theoretical results for impinging jet on a submerged sphere electrode At the impingement zone we observed a sharp concentration profile that is influenced by jet impingement on the electrode surface.Because of the vortex (at the flow vectors map) on the electrode sides we observed the concentration profile to become wider along Z-axis
14Comparison between Experimental and Theoretical limiting currents
15PHOENICS characteristics PHOENICS X11 – Version 2.1.3Operating system – UNIXConvergenceThe number of iterations
16PHOENICS characteristics RelaxationThe Relaxation factors for the variables:P1(pressure) linear relaxation (LINRLX)- 0.01C1(mass fraction of ferricyanid ion) linear relaxation (LINRLX)C2 (mass fraction of water)linear relaxation (LINRLX)V1(velocity vector in Y-axis) false-time-step relaxation (FALSDT) - 1*10-5W1(velocity vector in Z-axis) false-time-step relaxation (FALSDT) - 1*10-6
17CONCLUSIONS1. Using a numerical simulation code (PHOENICS), enables us to develop a method to predict the theoretical limiting current values2. Calculated limiting currents from the concentration field distribution, were in a good agreement ( %) by comparison to experimental results.
18RECOMMENDATIONS1. Development of theoretical model for submerged hemisphere electrode and compare the results with the experimental one2. Developments of theoretical model for unsubmerged sphere and hemisphere electrode, and compare the results with the experimental one.