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1 CAPITAL BUDGETING What it is Large investment in plant or equipment with returns over a period of time. Investment may take place over a period of time A Strategic Investment Decision

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2 CAPITAL BUDGETING Purpose Expansion Improvement Replacement R & D

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3 CAPITAL BUDGETING What do we need to think about? Location Infrastructure Labour Cash Flows What is the most important?

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4 OVERALL AIM To maximise shareholders wealth.. Projects should give a return over and above the marginal weighted average cost of capital. Projects can be; Mutually exclusive Independent Contingent Process of Choice

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5 IDEAL SELECTION METHOD Will Select the project that maximises shareholders wealth Consider all cash flows Discount the cash flows at the appropriate market determined opportunity cost of capital Will allow managers to consider each project independently from all others

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6 SELECTION METHODS Payback ARR Net Present Value (NPV) Internal Rate of Return (IRR)

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7 CHOICE PAYBACK Project A Project B Yr 0 - 1,000, ,000,000 Yr 1 + 1,100, ,000 Yr , ,000 Yr , ,000 Project A = Year.909 Project B = ?

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8 PAYBACK Problems:- Ignores overall return Ignores impact of large flows Ignores timing of flows

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9 ARR Project A Project B Yr 0 - 1,000, ,000,000 Yr 1 + 1,100, ,000 Yr , ,000 Yr , ,000 n RoA Project A= Σ ( cashflows) ÷ Io t=o n (200,000) = 66, ÷ 1,000,000 =.0666 or 6.67% 3 Project B? Problems?

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10 NET PRESENT VALUE PROJECT A YrCF PV 14% Present Value 0 - 1,000, ,000, , , , , , , , , , ,700 NPV 197,200

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11 NET PRESENT VALUE PROJECT B - 1,000, , , ,000

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12 NET PRESENT VALUE PROJECT B - 1,000, ,000, , , , , , , ,000 59, ,000 51,940 NPV 189,530 Which project should we undertake? Why?

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13 Internal Rate of Return Project A Yr CF 26% PV 27% 0 -1,000, = - 1,000, ,000, , = 396, , , = 314, , , = 249, , , = 198, , , = - 157, ,339 2, ,343 Interpolation IRR = 26.19% Project B 0 -1,000, = - 1,000, ,000, ,000 = 714, , ,000 = 125, , ,000 = 99,981 97, ,000 = 39,675 38, ,000 = 31,488 30,268 IRR = 27% 11,

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14 Interpolation 26%27% +2, ,343 Q. Where on the line does 0 fall? From = 2654 =.1896 or 18.96% of distance Since distance = = 1% =.1896 of 1% Answer = = 26.19% 13,997

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% YrCFPVIFPV 0- 1,000, ,000, , , , , , , , , , ,

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16 Comparison of NPV vs. IRR 1. NPV accepts all projects with NPV > 0. Ranking of projects is by value of NPV. 2. IRR finds the value of the discount rate that makes NPV = 0. Project will be accepted if IRR > k (cost of capital) The big Q? Will the two methods always give the same answer? No, unfortunately not

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17 NPV Vs IRR Relationship between NPV,IRR and Discount Rates Disc rate NPV

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, IRR = 15.8%

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19 Reinvestment Rate Assumption Project Yr0 Yr1 Yr2 Yr3 C of K NPV IRR X -10,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 10% 2, % Y -10, ,280 10% 2, % Illustration Yr 1End Yr 2End Yr 3 5,0006,1707,613 5,0006,170 5,000 10% 5,0005,5006,050 5,0005,500 5,000 16,550

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20 Value Additivity

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21 Multiple Rates of Return NPV IRR 15% Discount Rate 0 IRR – 12%

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22 NPV Vs IRR Conclusion NPV is the correct method to use But - there are some additional issues

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23 Other Issues Scale How do we evaluate between projects of different scale? Project Outlay 10 % NPV A B How do we compare? If we have plenty of capital then it is not a problem. Both have a positive NPV so do both.

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24 Other Issues Scale Suppose we only have 600 worth of capital. Which project should we take? Work out the Profitability Index Present Value = PI Cost Project A = 572 = Project B = 683 =

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25 Other Issues Scale Now work out the weighted PI For A (1.43 x 400) + (1 x 200) = For B (1.37 x 500) + (1 x 100) = Therefore take Project B

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26 Other Issues Project Lives What if projects take place over different time scales? Yr Project A Project B , , ,500 7, ,500 7, ,313 10%

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27 Other Issues Project Lives How to choose Assume you are able to repeat the projects until they have the same end date A 3 B (discount at 10%) (discount at 10%) 1813

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28 Project Lives (discount at 10%) 1566 Project B

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29 Project Lives This approach is fine for simple project lives but what if they are complex? E.g.lives of 7 years, 9 years and 13 years Answer make them all last for ever! NPV (n, to inf) = NPV n (1+ k) n (1+ k) n – 1

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30 Project Lives E.g. NPV 2 to inf = 723 (1.1) 2 = 723 x 1.21 (1.1) x 5.76 = 4,165 NPV 3 to inf = 894 (1.1) 3 = 894 x (1.1) 3 – x 4.02 = 3,596

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31 Cash Flows Example – Consider the following new project:- Initial capital investment of £15m. It will generate sales for 5 years. Variable Costs equal 70% of sales. Fixed cost of project =£200,000 P.A. A feasibility study, cost £5000, has already been carried out. Discount rate = 12%. Should we take the project?

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32 Cash Flows

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33 Cash Flows Treatment of depreciation in NPV analysis. -We only use cashflows in investment appraisal. -Depreciation is not a cashflow. -However, depreciation (capital allowances) is allowable against tax (see income statement), which affects cashflow. For cashflow, add depreciation back:-

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34 Treatment of Depreciation

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35 Issues to Consider Cash Flows But not in detail! Cash flows should be incremental - include all incidental effects (redundancy) - Do not forget working capital - Do forget sunk costs! - Be careful with allocated overheads

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36 Issues to Consider Cash Flows Uncertainty means more things can happen than will happen Brealy and Myers. How do we obtain a feel for what the cash flows are most likely to be? - Sensitivity Analysis - Scenario Analysis - Break Even Analysis - Simulation - Decision Trees

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37 Issues to Consider Discount Rate We also need to consider what discount rate to use as this will also effect the outcome. This is the next subject

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