2Debt /EquityCan the Value of the company be affected by changing the proportions of debt and equity used to finance the company?i.e. if debt is 7% and equity 12% then30%Debt and 70% equityWacc = .3 x x 12 == 10.5Will% debt and 50% equityWacc = .5 x x 12 == 9.5or
3Debt /EquityOr Will the increased risk cause the required rate of return on equity to rise such that there is no advantage?.5 x x 14 == 10.5
4Debt /EquityArgument continued until Modigliani and Miller on assumption of perfect markets, with the arbitrage proof, proved that a company cannot add value by doing something, borrow money, that a shareholder could do for themselves.Value only comes from what is produced, not how it is financed
5Debt /Equity But reintroduce some imperfections, bankruptcy costs, financial distress and so on but mainlyTaxAssuming taxable income and therefore a tax shield then -
7Debt /Equity What if interest taken after tax? EBIT 805 Tax @ 40% 322 Net378/3,500 = 10.8%12 – = 1.2%And 105 x .4 = 42 and 42/3,500 = 1.2%So extra 1.2% a gift from the government
8Debt /Equity Increase debt to 50% stil at 7% EBIT 805 Int 175 EBT 630 TaxNet378/2,500 = 15.12%But if required return = 14% then378/.14 = 2,700
9Debt /Equity So a decision to be made How much debt and how much equity?Industry normsCoverage ratiosAsset typesNon debt tax shieldsSizeEarnings volatility
10Equity Sources of equity Angels, Venture capital, Institutional Investors, Corporate investorsFocus on IPO’sInitial Public Offering or Flotation
11Equity Primary and Secondary Offerings Primary Offering New shares available in a public offering that raise new capitalSecondary OfferingShares sold by existing shareholders in an equity offering
12Equity PREFERRED STOCK DEFINITION Capital stock which provides a specific dividend that is paid before any dividends are paid to common stock holders, and which takes precedence over common stock in the event of a liquidation. Like common stock, preferred stocks represent partial ownership in a company, although preferred stock shareholders do not enjoy any of the voting rights of common stockholders. Also unlike common stock, a preferred stock pays a fixed dividend that does not fluctuate, although the company does not have to pay this dividend if it lacks the financial ability to do so. The main benefit to owning preferred stock is that the investor has a greater claim on the company's assets than common stockholders. Preferred shareholders always receive their dividends first and, in the event the company goes bankrupt, preferred shareholders are paid off before common stockholders. In general, there are four different types of preferred stock: cumulative preferred, non-cumulative, participating, and convertible. also called preference shares.This content can be found on the following page:
13EquityReasons for listingLiquidityBetter access to capitalButinvestors more widely dispersed so Agency issues.The firm must satisfy all of the requirements of public companies.SEC filings, Sarbanes-Oxley, Stock Exchange Listings etc.
14Equity Procedure similar in UK and USA Appointment of lead manager/ underwriterLead manager will pull together a syndicate. Multinational IPO’s may have as many as three syndicates to cover e.g. UK and Europe, USA and Canada, Far East.Legal advisorsLead managers will market the IPORoadshows,Lead manager will be involved in advising on price.
15Equity Lead manager will be involved in advising on price. Price arrived at by1) NPV methodology or2) Using comparablesA company that is planning an IPO appoints lead managers to help it decide on an appropriate price at which the shares should be issued. There are two ways in which the price of an IPO can be determined: either the company, with the help of its lead managers, fixes a price or the price is arrived at through the process of book building.
16EquityProcessDuring the fixed period of time for which the subscription is open, the book runner collects bids from investors at various prices, between the floor price and the cap price. Bids can be revised by the bidder before the book closes. The process aims at tapping both wholesale and retail investors. The final issue price is not determined until the end of the process when the book has closed. After the close of the book building period, the book runner evaluates the collected bids on the basis of certain evaluation criteria and sets the final issue price.If demand is high enough, the book can be oversubscribed. In these case the greenshoe option is triggered.
17Equity Methods of selling - Best efforts basis Underwriter does not guarantee that all thestock will be sold.May have an - All or None contract- Firm commitmentWhere the underwriter guarantees the sale of theshares at the offer price and will purchase all of theshares. If the price drops they are in trouble- Bought deal- Auction
18EquityIn the business of initial public offering, the underwriting contract is the contract between the underwriter and the issuer of the common stock. the following types of underwriting contracts are most common.In the firm commitment contract the underwriter guarantees the same of the issued stock at the agreed-upon price. For the issuer, it is the safest but the most expensive type of the contracts, since the underwriter takes the risk of sale.In the best efforts contract the underwriter agrees to sell as many shares as possible at the agreed-upon price. Under the all-or-none contract the underwriter agrees either to sell the entire offering or to cancel the deal. Stand-by underwriting, also known as strict underwriting or old-fashioned underwriting is a form of stock insurance: the issuer contracts the underwriter for the latter to purchase the shares the issuer failed to sell under stockholders' subscription and applications.  References^ a b c d "The Investment Banking Handbook" by J. Peter Williamson, 1988, ISBN , ""Underwriting Contracts", p. 128^ "The Law of Securities Regulation" by Thomas Lee Hazen, 1996, ISBN , p. 405.Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Underwriting_contract"
19EquityA bought deal occurs when an underwriter, such as an investment bank or a syndicate, purchases securities from an issuer before selling them to the public. The investment bank (or underwriter) acts as principal rather than agent and thus actually "goes long" in the security. The bank negotiates a price with the issuer (usually at a discount to the current market price, if applicable).The advantage of the bought deal from the issuer's perspective is that they do not have to worry about financing risk (the risk that the financing can only be done at a discount too steep to market price.) This is in contrast to a , where the underwriters have to "market" the offering to prospective buyers, only after which the price is set.The advantages of the bought deal from the underwriter's perspective include:Bought deals are usually priced at a larger discount to market than fully marketed deals, and thus may be easier to sell; andThe issuer/client may only be willing to do a deal if it is bought (as it eliminates execution or market risk.)The disadvantage of the bought deal from the underwriter's perspective is that if it cannot sell the securities, it must hold them. This is usually the result of the market price falling below the issue price, which means the underwriter loses money. The underwriter also uses up its capital, which would probably otherwise be put to better use (given sell-side investment banks are not usually in the business of buying new issues of securities.)
20Equity Best-Efforts, Firm Commitment and Auction IPOs Auction IPO A method of selling new issues directly to the publicRather than setting a price itself and then allocating shares to buyers, the underwriter in an auction IPO takes bids from investors and then sets the price that clears the market.
22Equity The Mechanics of an IPO Underwriters and the SyndicateLead UnderwriterThe primary investment banking firm responsible for managing a security issuanceSyndicateA group of underwriters who jointly underwrite and distribute a security issuance
23Equity The Mechanics of an IPO (cont'd) SEC FilingsRegistration StatementA legal document that provides financial and other information about a company to investors prior to a security issuancePreliminary Prospectus (Red Herring)Part of the registration statement prepared by a company prior to an IPO that is circulated to investors before the stock is offered
24Equity The Mechanics of an IPO (cont'd) SEC FilingsFinal ProspectusPart of the final registration statement prepared by a company prior to an IPO that contains all the details of the offering, including the number of shares offered and the offer price
25Equity The Mechanics of an IPO (cont'd) ValuationThere are two ways to value a company.Compute the present value of the estimated future cash flows.Estimate the value by examining comparables (recent IPOs).
28Equity Greenshoe Provision Allows the underwriter to issue more shares up to an agreed %E.g. Issue 3,000,000 at 12.50Greenshoe provision 15% or 450,000Short sell full 3,450,000If successful and price met then exercise Greenshoe provisionIf unsuccessful then can fulfil obligation by purchasing in the market with the benefit that this will provide some support for the price
29Equity IPO Puzzles Underpricing Generally, underwriters set the issue price so that the average first-day return is positive.As mentioned previously, research has found that 75% of first-day returns are positive.The average first day return in the United States is 18.3%.
30Equity IPO Puzzles (cont'd) UnderpricingThe underwriters benefit from the underpricing as it allows them to manage their risk.The pre-IPO shareholders bear the cost of underpricing. In effect, these owners are selling stock in their firm for less than they could get in the aftermarket.
31Figure 23.3 International Comparison of First Day IPO Returns
32Equity IPO Puzzles (cont'd) UnderpricingAlthough IPO returns are attractive, all investors cannot earn these returns.When an IPO goes well, the demand for the stock exceeds the supply. Thus the allocation of shares for each investor is rationed.When an IPO does not go well, demand at the issue price is weak, so all initial orders are filled completely.Thus, the typical investor will have their investment in “good” IPOs rationed while fully investing in “bad” IPOs.
33Equity Cyclicality of IPOs The number of issues is highly cyclical.When times are good, the market is flooded with new issues; when times are bad, the number of issues dries up.
34Figure 23.4 Cyclicality of Initial Public Offerings in the United States, (1975–2004)
35Equity Costs of Issuing an IPO A typical spread is 7% of the issue price.By most standards this fee is large, especially considering the additional cost to the firm associated with underpricing.It is puzzling that there seems to be a lack of sensitivity of fees to issue size.One possible explanation is that by charging lower fees, an underwriter may risk signaling that it is not the same quality as its higher-priced competitors.
36Figure 23.5 Relative Costs of Issuing Securities
37Equity Long-Run Underperformance Although shares of IPOs generally perform very well immediately following the public offering, it has been shown that newly listed firms subsequently appear to perform relatively poorly over the following three to five years after their IPOs.
38Equity The Seasoned Equity Offering Seasoned Equity Offering (SEO)When a public company offers new shares for salePublic firms use SEOs to raise additional equity.When a firm issues stock using an SEO, it follows many of the same steps as for an IPO.The main difference is that a market price for the stock already exists, so the price-setting process is not necessary.
39Equity The Mechanics of an SEO Primary SharesNew shares issued by a company in an equity offeringSecondary SharesShares sold by existing shareholders in an equity offeringTombstonesA newspaper advertisement in which an underwriter advertises a security issuance
40Equity The Mechanics of an SEO (cont'd) There are two types of seasoned equity offerings.Cash OfferA type of SEO in which a firm offers the new shares to investors at largeRights OfferA type of SEO in which a firm offers the new shares only to existing shareholdersRights offers protect existing shareholders from underpricing.
41EquityPrice ReactionResearchers have found that, on average, the market greets the news of an SEO with a price decline.This is consistent with the adverse selection discussed in Chapter 16.