Presentation on theme: "CONGO Andrea Ball Bilen Berhane. Underlying Causes Congo became an independent state after Belgium granted Congo independence on June 30, 1960. The war."— Presentation transcript:
Underlying Causes Congo became an independent state after Belgium granted Congo independence on June 30, 1960. The war that occurred within Congo was due to the fight for control and exploitation of vast natural resources found in the country. The resources are essential for the economy and provide the country with vast opportunities to make profit.
Immediate Causes Two weeks after the independence was granted Katanga seceded under the leadership of Moise Tshombe. After they seceded Kasai seceded as well, another mining province similar to Katanga. With Belgian aid they fought off the central government which was trying to gain control again. UN Troops were there on terms of non-intervention but soon there arose frustrations between the Katangese and the UN troops. There was a military coup which led to the death of Lumumba who had been in power of the central goverment
Description of weapons held by the opposing sides (comparison) The troops that were fighting against the UN troops as well as the Belgian troops had a disadvantage when it came to weapons. They had to rely on weapons that were considerably less effective of that of the UN or Belgium. In some areas the Militias resorted to using machetes while wreaking havoc on the villages.
Description of the major theaters of war The war took place in many areas within the Congo such as the province of Katanga, which is in the southern eastern area. Also there were some clashes within between the opposing sides in the capital, Brazzaville.
Decisive Battles July, 1960 – Tshombe led Katanga province to declare independence and received military backing by Belgium July 11, 1960 – UN issues resolution 143 that demanded Belgium remove their troops and authorized the use of the military to help the Congo government – 19,800 troops were approved as the UN peacekeeping force and sent to the Congo August 1960 – Lumumba’s forces, backed by the USSR, attack the Katanga province but fail August 1961 - Three rival factions (Lumumba, Kasavabu, Mobutu) meet, without Katanga representatives, to form an election for a legitimate government, but elections fail
September 1961 – UN troops fight Katangan troops while on a mission to rid Katanga of Belgian mercenaries November 1962 – UN forces given authority to rid Katanga of foreign influences, attack in December leading to a ceasefire and peace talks. These failed, but a final UN attack forced Tshombe to flee the country by 1962 January 1963 – Katanga reunited with rest of Congo 1964 – Following the withdrawal of all UN forces, Mobutu installed himself as dictator
Decisive Battles September 1961 – UN troops fight Katangan troops while on a mission to rid Katanga of Belgian mercenaries November 1962 – UN forces given authority to rid Katanga of foreign influences, attack in December leading to a ceasefire and peace talks. These failed, but a final UN attack forced Tshombe to flee the country by 1962 January 1963 – Katanga reunited with rest of Congo 1964 – Following the withdrawal of all UN forces, Mobutu installed himself as dictator
Key strategies/ Events leading the victory Intervention of the UN swayed the battle against Katanga and Lumumba Warring factions attempted democratic elections, but these failed Indecisiveness on the issue of whom to back on the part of the western powers prolonged the war and allowed Kasavabu then Mobutu to seize power Victory was not truly achieved because rival factions continued to war, and rebellions continued throughout the country
Peace agreements/ Treaty Backed by the USA, Mobutu seized power with CIA help Re-named the country Zaire and nationalized with hopes of expelling all colonial powers Country united into one-party dictatorship Rebellions continue throughout the country
Long term impact Belgium withdrew Mobutu amassed a fortune, but Zaire remained impoverished Congo returned to civil war after Mobutu’s death in 1998 Belgium and the USSR’s actions in the Congo that were contrary to the ruling of the UN showed a weakness in the UN’s authority Cost of the war weighed heavily on the UN’s finances There is still conflict in the Congo today – Mobutu was deposed by Kabila and renamed the Democratic Republic of the Congo, but other African countries invaded in opposition to his rule (1999) Kabila was opposed by Rwanda and Uganda but backed by Zimbabwe, Angola, Namibia, Chad, and Sudan – Ceasefire signed in 2001, but there is still political instability continues as trading in minerals finances conflict (blood- diamonds) – Kabila was assassinated and his son took over in a democratic government Rebellions continue to be formed, often originating in the Katanga province