Presentation on theme: "Local contestation around a flagship urban housing project: N2 Gateway and the Joe Slovo community in Cape Town Paper to be presented at EADI-DSA 2011."— Presentation transcript:
1Local contestation around a flagship urban housing project: N2 Gateway and the Joe Slovo community in Cape TownPaper to be presented at EADI-DSA 2011 Conference September in York, UK for the session Reconfiguring the fast growing city: Exploring the interaction between urban governance, megaprojects and settlement dynamics in cases from India and South AfricaDavid Jordhus-Lier, senior researcherNorwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research (NIBR)
2N2 Gateway: a mega-project? Flagship project of the 2004 national government housing policy Breaking New Ground22,000 housing units for people marginalised in the housing marketUpgrading/removal of highly visible informal settlements along the N2 highwayLink to growth objectives: The 2010 World Cup and Cape Town’s identity as a tourist destinationComplex collaborative venture between all tiers of government and private contractors:ANC/DA party politics and tiers of governmentProblems with contracts and responsibilitiesCommunity resistance
4A political analysis from a settlement perspective An intensely contested and delayed process which has created a whole set of political dynamicsMain issues:eligibility criteriaquality of housinglack of communicationuse of local labour
5TIMELINE - Joe Slovo and N2 Gateway (2004-2011) August 2004Breaking New Ground housing policy launched by the National Department of HousingSeptember 2004N2 Gateway plans are presented to the Joe Slovo residents through the local media15 January 2005Shack fire in Joe Slovo renders people homeless13 February 2005Thubelisha Homes, a national agency, is appointed as project managers of N2 Gateway14 February 2005Sobambisana Consortium wins the call for proposals and becomes developers of N2 Gateway Phase IJune 2006The City of Cape Town is removed from its implementing role in the N2 Gateway projectN2 Gateway Phase II is launchedSeptember 2006People move into N2 Gateway Phase I in Joe SlovoNovember 2006Residents of Phase I form a committeeJuly 2007Phase I residents march to ParliamentRent boycott in Phase I3 AugustJoe Slovo informal settlement residents march to Parliament to protest planned forced removals10 September 2007Joe Slovo Task Team, Abahlali baseMjondolo and WC Anti-Eviction Campaign with residents occupy N2 highway20 September 2007Thubelisha secures an eviction order of Joe Slovo residents from Cape High Court12 December 2007Postponed hearing of the case in Cape High Court, after a series of community complaintsDelft residents occupy unfinished N2 Gateway houses in DelftFebruary 2008Cape High court orders eviction of Delft occupants of N2 Gateway housesMarch 2008Cape High court orders eviction of Joe Slovo informal settlement dwellers in preparation for Phase IIAugust 2008Hearing of the Joe Slovo case in the Constitutional CourtMay 2009The Auditor-General releases a critical report on the N2 Gateway ProjectJune 2009Phase I residents march to the Premier's office to demand changes in the project's managementAugust 2009Constitutional Court orders a negotiated relocation in the case of Residents, Joe Slovo Community Western Cape v Thubelisha Homes and Others1 March 2011N2 Gateway Phase III construction of 2886 units in Joe Slovo begins31 March 2011Constitutional Court discharged its own eviction order due to ‘exceptional circumstances’
9Dimensions of contestation and engagement High level of collective mobilizationProtests, occupations, blockadeCommunity-driven planningLow level of collective mobilizationApathy, vandalism, patronageLegal processDis-engagementEngagement
10Phases of contestation and engagement Confrontational mobilisation. Resistance, occupation, illegality; staunchly autonomous; but also attempts to link to broader social movement mobilisation; creating publicity and space for engagement. Process-oriented resistance. Legal processes (resisting evictions, fighting charges`); with legal NGO support; achieving partial victories. Knowledge-based engagement. Based on cooperation with local and translocal support NGOs, linking up with metropolitan governance (CoCT), not related directly to N2 Gateway, creating a basis for engagement and community influence; participatory planning and empowering community knowledge.
11ReferencesInterviews with CSO, NGO and City of Cape Town representatives.Various documentation from the Constitutional Court, the City of Cape Town and the Chance2Sustain project.Adlard, G. (2008). Are informal settlements a housing solution? Is anyone responsible or accountable for informal settlements? What is the future of informal settlements in Cape Town? And other leading questions. Paper presented to the South African International Housing Conference. Cape Town: 1-9.Baud, I., K. Pfeffer, et al. (2011). Developing participatory 'spatial' knowledge models in metropolitan governance networks for sustainable development. Chance2Sustain Literature Review March Bonn, EADI: 1-19.Bolnick, A. (undated). From the Politics of Protest to the Politics of Redress. The Planning of a Sanitation Unit in a South African Slum. Cape Town, Community Organisation Resource Centre: 1-14.COHRE (2009). N2 Gateway Project: Housing Rights Violations As ‘Development’ In South Africa. Geneva, Switzerland, Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions: 1-48.DAG (2007). Living on the edge: A study of the Delft Temporary Relocation Area. Cape Town, Development Action Group: 1-37.Department of Housing (2004). Breaking New Ground: A comprehensive plan for the development of sustainable human settlements. Department of Housing. Pretoria: 1-28.Eppel, S. (2007). "They come here and take our houses!": Community conflicts in Langa in the context of the housing crisis in Cape Town: 'Borners' against 'migrants'. Department of Sociology. Cape Town, University of Cape Town. MPhil in Development Studies: Graham, N. (2006). Informal settlement upgrading in Cape Town: Challenges, constraints and contradictions within local government. Informal settlements: A perpetual challenge. M. Huchzermeyer and A. Karam. Cape Town, UCT Press:Kennedy, L., G. Robbins, et al. (2011). The politics of large-scale economic and infrastructure projects in fast-growing cities of the South. Chance2Sustain Literature Review March Bonn, EADI: 1-23.Legassick, M. (2008). Western Cape Housing Crisis: Writings on Joe Slovo and Delft. Cape Town, A Western Cape Anti-Eviction Campaign and Socialist Alternative publication: 1-47.Millstein, M. and D. C. Jordhus-Lier (2011). Making communities work? Casual labour practices and local civil society dynamics in Delft, Cape Town. EADI Urban Governance Working Group workshop “Urban governance, vulnerability and resilience in cities in the South” Oslo 17 March 2011: 1-19.Miraftab, F. and S. Wills (2005). "Insurgency and spaces of active citizenship: The story of Western Cape Anti-Eviction Campaign in South Africa." Journal of Planning Education and Research 25:Smit, W. (2008). Le grand project N2 Gateway [The N2 Gateway mega-project]. Le Cap Après L’Apartheid [Cape Town After Apartheid]. A. Dubresson and S. Jaglin. Paris, Karthala:Stokke, K. and D. C. Lier (2008). Contesting neoliberalism: Spaces of democracy and post-apartheid social movements in South Africa. Forthcoming.Swilling, M. (2008). Beyond cooption and protest: Reflections on the FEDUP alternative. Consolidating Developmental Local Government. M. van Donk, M. Swilling, E. Pieterse and S. Parnell. Cape Town, UCT Press: