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Oiip – Austrian Institute for International Affairs Berggasse 7, 1090 Vienna, Tel: +43 1 581 11 06, Fax: -10 Promoting.

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Presentation on theme: "Oiip – Austrian Institute for International Affairs Berggasse 7, 1090 Vienna, Tel: +43 1 581 11 06, Fax: -10 Promoting."— Presentation transcript:

1 oiip – Austrian Institute for International Affairs Berggasse 7, 1090 Vienna, Tel: +43 1 581 11 06, Fax: -10, Promoting Resilience in Situations of Fragility: Possible Implications on EU Donor Policies Jan Pospisil (oiip / Vienna), Sophie Besancenot (EUI / Florence) EADI GC 2011: Rethinking Development in an Age of Scarcity and Uncertainty University of York, 20.9.2011

2 16.05.2014 1.Fragility and Resilience 2.New Conceptual Approach to International Statebuilding? 3.State of Implementation 4.(Potential) Implications for EU Development Policy 5.Concluding Remarks Outline 1

3 16.05.2014 2 Weak/Failed States since early 1990s, in Development Policy relevant since early 2000s (replacing Peacebuilding) Fragile States / Fragility since around 2005. Wide range of scenarios, regionally flexible Moving beyond blueprint approaches (which failed anyway) Avoiding diplomatic pitfalls Growing amount of development policy literature since around 2005 (mainly OECD DAC Working Group) Resilience: introduced around 2008 (Feeding Papers for DAC) Fragility and Resilience (I/III)

4 Fragility and Resilience (II/III) Current Definition (OECD 2011): More resilient states (…) are capable of absorbing shocks and transforming and channelling radical change or challenges while maintaining political stability and preventing violence. (…) They can manage and adapt to changing social needs and expectations, shifts in elite and other political agreements, and growing institutional complexity. Resilience increases when expectations, institutions, and the political settlement interact in ways that are mutually reinforcing. Counterpart of Fragility, Opposite of Stability Other accounts in development policy sector: ERD 2009, BMZ 2007 Resilience also relevant in other policy sectors: Ecology, Economy, Financial Security, Security Policy 16.05.2014 3

5 European Report on Development 2009: Fragility and Resilience (III/III) 16.05.2014 4

6 New Conceptual Approach to International Statebuilding? Current Development Policy Approach to Statebuilding (as discussed in INCAF / OECD DAC) has three components: Fragility: Variety of Scenarios, regionally flexible Context and Do No Harm: Fragile States Principles 1 and 2 Resilience: Focus on State-Society-Relations Key terms shift, e.g., from Rule of Law to Legitimacy Nevertheless: How to move forward in terms of implementation? 16.05.2014 5

7 6 State of Implementation (I/II) Approach is still contested among and within the donors themselves Development Policy sector: various approaches within INCAF Despite WoG-Approach: often different perceptions / approaches by Diplomacy, Military Evaluations show: Knowledge of FSPs very low in the field (despite significant efforts of training, instruction, awareness raising) Process of Dissemination / Policy Diffusion remains unclear (lack of research, Paris 2011) Main focus in terms of implementation / evaluation is put on the FSPs (e.g. via the FSP Surveys)

8 16.05.2014 7 State of Implementation (II/II) OECD FSP Survey 2009:

9 16.05.2014 8 Implications for EU Development Policy (I/II) Resilience: very challenging concept for donors in the context of statebuilding / working in fragile environments Who is a potential partner? Who is not? What about so called traditional institutions (or hybrid political orders?) What is institutional legitimacy in such a context? What about state sovereignty? First empirical explorations show different approaches among EU member states – e.g. France very reluctant against new approach, while e.g. UK adaptive => severe difficulties to find a common approach (concept-wise)

10 16.05.2014 9 Implications for EU Development Policy (II/II) ERD 2009 – most advanced / cutting-edged document on international statebuilding to date => designed to forge a New European Approach, could indeed offer a lot to statebuilding endeavours Still: EC-emphasis mainly on technocratic and institutional statebuilding => ambitious analysis versus insufficient adaption (cf. Hout 2010) At present: international statebuilding is more an experiment for European Union that an answer to local / regional challenges => EC / Member States will have to adapt / align their initiatives to really stipulate such New European Approach

11 Concluding Remarks 16.05.2014 10 Resilience is worth a try in international statebuilding (given the obvious shortcomings so far) => BUT: severe break with traditional avenues, therefore very challenging and politically sensitive Dissemination is key: very ambitious regarding FSPs – but still falls short, particularly regarding dynamic aspects of Resilience Several key tasks: regarding Policy Development – less but better (clear-cut) policy guidance regarding Implementation – more adaption needed, too much emphasis on static (lessons learned) and over-conceptualised (SSR) thinking regarding Research – gaps in knowledge of policy diffusion, complexity around processes of policy implementation

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