Presentation on theme: "New Paradigms and Old Practices: Unpacking the Paradox of the BRICS as Development Actors Alex Shankland, Lizbeth Navas-Alemán, Jennifer Constantine Rising."— Presentation transcript:
New Paradigms and Old Practices: Unpacking the Paradox of the BRICS as Development Actors Alex Shankland, Lizbeth Navas-Alemán, Jennifer Constantine Rising Powers in International Development Programme Institute of Development Studies, Sussex Development Studies Association annual conference 2012: Institute of Education, University of London 3 rd November 2012
What is it? Outline Towards a conceptual framework: – Discourse, Policy, Practice... and Power Discourse: – New paradigm? Policy: – Why the BRICS? Practice: – Towards a research agenda
What is it? Understanding the impact of the BRICS on international development cooperation
What is it? BRICS and the Balance of Global Power Relations BRICS have lost some steam in terms of economic growth, leading to headlines such as Crumbling BRICS etc. however, financial crises show the BRICS economies faring better than submerging economies (Eyben & Savage 2012) – does not compromise blocs legitimacy issues Marked power shift towards bloc – not quite quantifiable yet, but bigger than sum of its parts (e.g. Busan, SSC, TDC) Rising inequality compromising social and political stability (e.g. in EU) in stark contrast to developmental gains made by countries such as Brazil, China, and India – S. Africa using bloc membership / brand to try and address legitimacy issues domestically and internationally
What is it? BRICS Bank – bargaining chip? 5 years on, BRICS playing North at its own game: New Delhi declaration announced focus of BRICS intervention on trade and development finance Next step? BRICS Development Finance Bank announced: bargaining chip? Snub to IFIs? Way to dodge hoops imposed by IFIs? Value-added of being run by local/Southern actors? A way of attracting funds / investment and keeping it in the BRICS? Future research: power and PE analysis of BRICS bloc ministerial meetings
What is it? Old paradigm: Aid and Trade are separate New paradigm: They are part of the same relationship Old paradigm: Harmonisation of Aid delivery New paradigm: Free market, the partner decides. Buyers market! Old paradigm: Aid doesnt require reciprocity but creates inferiority New paradigm: Aid doesnt create inferiority but it creates obligation Old paradigm: Aid creates high transaction costs (compliance costs) New paradigm: Zero conditionality Reimagining development cooperation?
What is it? Old paradigm: Aid doesnt require reciprocity but creates inferiority New paradigm: Aid doesnt create inferiority but it creates obligation Aid as the rulers gift: who is the audience of the gift – recipient or constituency? Or other rulers? To give is not to have to receive: Russia and the gift as existential necessity? The knowledge gift: SSC is knowledge-based – how different from the money gift? But if it doesnt require reciprocity of learning, then its constructing inferiority – when has a BRIC learned from a LIC? New paradigms: Aid and the Gift
What is it? South-South Development Cooperation contains much that is paradigm-shifting, but... The return of tied aid: from knowledge to tractors? Exporting surplus capital again: HIPC 2.0? From solidarity back to othering: BRICS stereotypes of Africa? Back to integrated regional development: IRDP 2.0? Back to colonisation and resistance: MST in the Nacala Corridor? Growth rules again: whither rights and voice? Back to techno-triumphalism: South-South modernisation? Old practices
What is it?... but just as in Old Aidland, homogeneous discourses can mask heterogenous practices. From discourses to practices Understanding whether or not a new paradigm is emerging requires us to shift focus from discourse to practice...
What is it? Towards a research agenda Agency: – of the recipients (elite and subaltern) – of the actors of Old Aidland – of the front-line practitioners of South-South Cooperation Development cooperation and the export of contradictions: imaginaries of the other Expertise, practices and power: knowledge encounters in South-South Technical Cooperation Conclusions: the new and the old
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