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Insert footer on Slide November 2012 Real Estate and Planning Dr. Richard J. Nunes Dr. Angelique Chettiparambil Rajan.

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Presentation on theme: "Insert footer on Slide November 2012 Real Estate and Planning Dr. Richard J. Nunes Dr. Angelique Chettiparambil Rajan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Insert footer on Slide November 2012 Real Estate and Planning Dr. Richard J. Nunes Dr. Angelique Chettiparambil Rajan From appreciative inquiry to transformative inquiry: Explorations in pedagogy Development Studies Association Conference, London

2 Overview Compares critical inquiry and appreciative inquiry; Introduces transformative inquiry Discusses potential for pedagogy Presents two early attempts to use this framework in pedagogy 3

3 Critical Inquiry Systematic inquiry that seeks to reveal the operation of wider societal structures such as power; Claims to objective knowledge; Claims to truth and understanding; Can be inclusive and dialogical; Includes a vision of a better world; It can be argued that it often results in a problem focus with an emphasis on solutions 3

4 Differences between critical and appreciative inquiry Critical InquiryAppreciative Inquiry Driver Logic of analysis Find whats wrong, broken or missing/find solutions to it; Faith in strengths Find whats working, present or right/affirm and expand on it; Knowledge focus Negative experiences of power/conventionsPositive and unique experiences Epistemology Social constructivist / Realist; More stress on understanding Social constructivist More stress on meaning/significance Value Rationality and reason, the intellect objective knowledge Innovation, affirmation, intuition, imagination; constructed knowledge ApproachAddress the negative; leverage the positiveAmplify the positive; reframe the negative Space-time dimension Wide-continuousImmediate (here/now) Process Does not have to be social Dialogical or reflective Criticism? Narratives; Storytelling, Encouraging Draws on principles of simultaneity ImpactDirective/intolerant resulting in defensiveness Potentially paralyzing or deficit discourse – maintains status quo Potentially emancipatory - shared meaning of Justice Encouraging and inclusive resulting in sense of comaraderie; Potentially emancipatory - way forward. Spirals of dysfunctional practices ?

5 Similarities between critical and appreciative inquiry Critical Inquiry and AppreciativeInquiry DriverSocial Change Knowledge focusExperiential knowledge EpistemologySocial constructivist, Situated truth, ValueKnowledge, sharing and dialogue, ProcessExplore and examine; reflection and management of knowledge ImpactPotentially emancipatory - potential for discovery and change; Shared knowledge;

6 Critical inquiryAppreciative inquiryTransformative Inquiry DriverSocial change - Logic Social change - affirmation Social change – Logic and affirmation (pragmatism) Knowledge - focus Power – negative experiences Unique Experience Power in both negative and unique/shared experiences Epistemology Realist/Social constructivist; stress on Understanding Social constructivist; stress on Meaning Postmodern stress on relational meaning Retains a critical realist orientation (Roy Bhaskar) ValueRational knowledge Constructed knowledge and Innovation Reflectively modulated inquiry. Not everything goes Approach Address the negative; leverage the positive Address the positive; reframe the negative Neutral; Modulated choices through social reflection Space-time dimension Wide-continuousImmediate (here/now) Wide-continuous through the Immediate ProcessExamine, analyse Affirmation, creativity, storytelling Collaborative; situated judgments ImpactEmancipatory through shared meanings of Justice Emancipatory through comaraderie Second order learning Combining critical and appreciative inquiry

7 Transformative inquiry (TI) Claims to retain the mobilizing appeal of AI with the reason of CI. Claims to foster informed positions on change (whether transformative or conservative) conducive to action. Can result in the inclusion of new voices. Potentially expands the circle of influence. Recognizes the power/reality of the whole in the specific. More awareness of consequences (practical reason). Can result in second order learning 7

8 TI in Pedagogy? Some experiments 7

9 Case study 1 – Cross-faculty sustainability learning: Background University initiative Optional undergraduate module (Part 1) Iteration between academic knowledge and unique/shared experience Cross-disciplinary learning in place; situated judgments Sustainability literate professionals and active citizenship 8

10 The Debate: –Affirmation of sustainability literacy ensures students acquire knowledge, skills and values that will assist them in living and working sustainably (AI). –An apriori stance on the political issue of development and the environment (i.e. sustainability) undermines critical inquiry (CI). –As mutually exclusive statements, the debate reaches an impasse. Together they carry a demand for a new pedagogy (TI) 8 Case study 1 – Cross-faculty sustainability learning: Background

11 Assessment -1: Reflective learning (tracking learning experience and development) – Log (online) (RI) Assessment – 2: Inquiry project (students develop criteria to judge their own learning; second order learning) (TI) –Stage 1: – Topic Choice (CI); –Stage 2: – Progress Report (AI) –Stage 3: – Project Development Blog (CI/AI) –Stage 4: – Final Project Presentation: (CI/AI) –Stage 5: – Final Project: (TI) 8 Case study 1 – Cross-faculty sustainability learning: Assessment

12 Case study 2 – International work based learning: Background Capping module Iteration between professional knowledge and action: Reflective practitioners Situated nature of truth and ethics Cross-cultural learning Professional managers 9

13 Case study 2 – International work based learning: Process Assessed process: formative assessment Focus on Work placement: –Assessed pre-engagement: assessment-1 (CI) –Monitored ethnographic engagement: (CI and AI) –Assessed post engagement: assessment -2 (AI) and Assessment 3 (TI) Focus on Individual/Career/Profession: –Assessed reflection – Assessment – 3 (RI) 10

14 Case study 2 – International work based learning: Assessment Assessment -1: Critical pre-engagement ( background of country, organisation, work) – Report Assessment –2: Appreciative post engagement presentation. Assessment -3: Reflective report (ethnographic TI and professional RI to lead to double loop learning). 11

15 TI in pedagogy TI draws on a: Social constructivist view of education –Privileges the learner and his/her prior experiences –Conversational learning –Reflective learning –Appreciative learning –Analytical learning 15

16 11 References Cuypers, S. E. (2004) Critical thinking, autonomy and practical reason. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 38(1) 75-90. Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2-3), 87-105 Giroux, H. (1991) Postmodernism, feminism, and cultural politics: Redrawing educational boundaries. Albany: State University of New York Press. Grant, S. and Humphries, M. (2006) Critical evaluation of Appreciative Inquiry. Action research. 4(4), 401-418. Hedberg, P. R. (2009) Learning through Reflective Classroom practice. Journal of Management Education, 33(1), 10-36. Neville, M. G. (2008) Using Appreciative Inquiry and Dialogical Learning to Explore Dominant Paradigms. Journal of Management Education, 32(1), 100-117. Van der Haar, D. and Hosking, D. M. (2004) Evaluating appreciative inquiry: A relational constructionist perspective. Human Relations, 57(8), 1017-1036. Verma, N. 2012. Generative inquiry. A mindful harmonisation of appreciation and critiquing. Unpublished paper. World Appreciative Inquiry Conference Yballe, L. and OConnor, D. (2000) Appreciative Pedagogy: Constructing Positive Models for Learning. Journal of Management Education, 24(4), 474-483. 11

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