Presentation on theme: "Francy Carranza Franco Phd Candidate SOAS. National and Human Security The national and local governments not always concur or cooperate What was the."— Presentation transcript:
National and Human Security The national and local governments not always concur or cooperate What was the role of the local authorities at the beginning of the reintegration process? To what extent the local authorities influenced the design of the national program implemented today?
COMBATANT/CITIZENSHIP DYCHOTOMY DDR programmes should support the process of turning combatants into productive citizens. This process starts in the demobilization phase, during which the structures of armed forces and groups are broken down and combatants formally acquire civilian status (UNDP, 2006. 2.10 p. 4).
SECURITY PROBLEMS IN THE REINTEGRATION AT THE LOCAL LEVEL(Villamizar, 2006) Risks: Their conditions of excombatants makes the vulnerable to violence Collateral damage in the recipient community Increasing crime or social unrest
THE DEMOBILIZATIONS Collective Paramilitary groups 2003 - 200631.671 37 groups Individual (Deserters) Mainly guerrillas 1994 - 2002 2003 – 2011 6.500 15.245
THE REINTEGRATION National Programs: 1994 Program for the Reintegration in the Civil Life (PRVC) – Ministry of Interior Flooded with more than 5 times on its capacity Lack of resources Lack of personnel 2007 High Commission for Reintegration
THE REINTEGRATION Local Programs: Medellin – Peace and Reconciliation Program Bogotá – Program of Complementary Services to the Demobilized Population in Bogotá (PAPDRB)
Peace and Reconciliation - Medellin Model: Return to legality Psychological Services: psicoeducation and individual support Education: CEPAR Income generation: job training and promotion of small businesses Legal Advice Registration into the health system Social inclusion activities with the community
Program of Complementary Services to the Demobilized Population in Bogotá (PAPDRB) 76 Hogares de Paz in Bogotá (never consulted with the local administration, Villamizar, 2006) Crisis in 2004: managed by private contractors, these homes were crowded and people had poor living conditions. Three security events that caught media attention Thus, Uribe decided to close these homes in Bogotá and the Ministry of Interior had to rethink the sheltering system.
PAPDRB - Bogotá Complementary Services Support in the use of the social services available to Bogotás disadvantaged population: education and benefits Income generation: job training and promotion of small businesses. Social inclusion activities with the community
REINTEGRATION PROGRAMS 1994Program of Reintegration to the Civil Life (PRVC) Ministry of Interior - 2003 2003 Reincorporation to Civilian life Peace and Reconciliation Mayor of Medellin 2004Complementary Services to the Demobilized Population (PAPDRB) Mayor of Bogotá 2007 2012 High Commission for Reintegration (ACR) Colombian Agency for Reintegration Presidency
REINTEGRATION PROGRAMS Peace and Reconciliation laid the foundations of the ACR program: psychological services, income generation suport and social inclusion activities with the community. Provided services to the Bloques Cacique Nutibara (868) and Heroes de Granada (2.033), to other 9 groups in Antioquia and to other less developed regions By 2007, exsoldiers from the collective demobilization Medellin4.13013% Antioquia10.84434%
SOME FINDINGS The local governments of Bogotá and Medellin played a key role in filling the gaps and overcoming the pitfalls of the reintegration phase: a) Implementation: in the provision of services right after the dismantling of the military structures. b) Adjustments to the national policy The demobilized population were satisfied with the services provided by both, national and the local reintegration programs
CONCLUSION Colombian government: control of the territory, combating the remaining of the paramilitary groups, as well as the guerrillas, drug traffickers and other criminal groups – MILITARY SECURITY Local governments: the peaceful coexistence among its inhabitants, creating conditions for a successful reintegration of many excombatants – HUMAN SECURITY
CONCLUSION This human security prevents the demobilized soldiers to become a threat to the national and local governments, but also, providing them with skills (psychological, educational and working skills) allows them to settle down in a specific community instead of becoming predator of it.