Presentation on theme: "Higher Education for Sustainable Development: Public or Private Good?"— Presentation transcript:
Higher Education for Sustainable Development: Public or Private Good?
What is Public Good Role of Govt in allocating resources Sandy Baum and Michael McPherson (2011) look at two characteristics : Non-excludability (non-payers cannot be excluded from consuming the good) Non-Rivalry in consumption (benefits to others are not diminished because others are consuming)
Education as a Public Good The public benefits from people getting higher education Often earn more money and pay more taxes Become active citizens in a democracy Innovation generates new products and services for all Benefits shared by participants and rest of society Therefore, the cost of public higher education to be borne by the state Subsidies/Subventions Grants Loans
Higher Education as a Private Good Benefits accrue solely to the individual and provides no public good Many taxpayers who do not attend or use public funds do not benefit Waste of public funds to support to support programmes that would contribute to graduate unemployment
Higher Education in Ghana: Public Good or Private Good? Who should provide higher education? Individuals? Families? Communities? Religious institutions? Government (i.e., the state)? Non-Government Organizations?
Christianity and European Formal Education in Ghana Formal education starts with the European Christian Missionaries Castle schools to train children of Europeans & mulattos Train and convert Africans
Early Missionary Schools Akropong Teacher Training College [Boys], Akropong (Basel Mission-Presbyterian), 1848 Mfantsipim [Boys], Cape Coast (Wesleyan Mission-- Methodist), 1876 Adisadel College [Boys], Cape Coast (Church of England- -Anglican), 1910 Wesley College [Boys], Kumasi (Wesleyan Mission- Methodist), 1924 Ola Training College [Girls], Cape Coast (Roman Catholic- Our Lady of Apostles), 1926 St. Augustines College [Boys], Cape Coast (Roman Catholic Mission), 1930 Odomase Krobo Secondary School [Mixed], Krobo (Basel Mission-Presbyterian), 1938
Achimota College: Departure from Missionary Education Established 1924 by the Colonial government and formally opened in 1927 An elite secondary school based on the British model of public education Publicly-funded by Government Interdenominational, with students and staff practicing their own denomination of Christianity.
Full Fledge Public Education Vision – to train boys and girls to be at ease in both traditional culture and western settings. Full kindergarten, primary, secondary, intermediate and teacher training Engineering and external degree courses from University of London An instrument for controlling and directing the future of the country through changing peoples behavior and ideas
Missionary Schools Contd Aggrey Memorial College [Mixed], Cape Coast, founded in 1940; named changed to Aggrey Memorial A.M.E. Zion Secondary School in 1947 (African Methodist Episcopal) Holy Child Secondary School [Girls], Cape Coast (Roman Catholic), 1946 Prempeh College [Boys], Kumasi (Methodist-Presbyterian), 1949 T.I. Ahamadiyya Secondary School [Mixed], Kumasi (Ahmadiyya Movement-Muslim), 1951 Opoku Ware School [Boys], Kumasi (Roman Catholic), 1952 Holy Child Training College [Girls], Tarkoradi (Roman Catholic), 1955 SDA Teacher Training College [Mixed], Bekwai (Adventists)
Birth of Public Universities in Ghana Achimota College gave birth to the first two public universities in Ghana University of Ghana (1948) Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology (1961)
Is Higher Education in Ghana a Public Good? James Cemmel examines the broad functions of Higher Education Research (development of new knowledge) Teaching (training of highly qualified personnel) Extension services (Working/providing services in the community) Ethical function (Social criticism)
University of Ghana, Legon Founded in 1948 as the University College of London to provide university education, learning, and research in the then British colony. The original emphasis was on the liberal arts, social sciences, basic science, agriculture, and medicine
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Established in 1961 to provide higher education in science and technology for the technological development of the country
University of Cape Coast Established in 1962 with a mandate to train highly qualified and skilled teachers and administrators, especially for the Ghana Education Service
University for Development Studies Established in 1992 as a multi-campus institution with a mission to blend the academic world with that of the community for the total development of northern Ghana
University of Education, Winneba Established in 1992 for teacher education for second-cycle institutions
Demand for Higher Education in Ghana UNESCO estimates that in Ghana, only 2.6% of all children who enter primary schools eventually make it to the tertiary level Today, the demand for higher education in the country is very high resulting is a rapid increase in enrollment Enrollments in Ghanas national universities have increased significantly in the last two decades following the publication of the University Rationalization Report in 1988 Still, Ghanaian public universities can only offer admissions to about 35% of qualified applicants
Expanding the Structure of Higher Education in Ghana The term Tertiary Education is adopted in 1992 in the 4 th Republic of Ghana The new Constitution established the National Council for Tertiary Education (NCTE) Higher Education expanded to include ALL post-secondary educational institutions: Universities University Colleges Polytechnics Professional Institutions NCTE becomes the advisory body on tertiary education to the Minister of Education A Minister of State for Tertiary Education was appointed in 2003
Ghanas Road to Privatization of Higher Education Under the Education Sector Reform of the countrys Economic Recovery Program of the late 1980s, private providers were given official permission to establish institutions of higher education The National Accreditation Board (NAB) was established in 1993 to accredit both public and private tertiary institutions for contents, standards, and management Religious organizations and individual have embarked on efforts to establish private colleges and universities Between 1995 and 2007, the NAB has accredited 25 private universities and colleges, 70% of which are religious-based With the exception of the Islamic University College, all of the private religious institutions of higher education are Christian- sponsored
Why Proliferation of Private Religious Higher Education in Ghana? To increase access to qualified individuals who do not gain admission to the traditional public universities To provide quality and practically-oriented education in the African cultural context To focus on Theology, Business-related, and ICT courses To train individuals to assume leadership roles in the various religious organizations To address indiscipline in the society Strengthen spiritual development to counteract the excesses of Western consumer culture
Representations of Private Religious Institutions in Ghana Protestants Valley View University (Seventh-Day Adventists) Methodist University College African Pentecostals Central University College (International Central Gospel Church) Roman Catholic Catholic University College Islamic Islamic University College (Ahlul-Bait Foundation of Islamic Republic of Iran)
Contemporary Views on Religion and Educational Attainment Religion and globalization combine to shape the social and cultural landscape of the country African Pentecostal Christian groups and charismatic movements have grown dramatically and taken serious interest in the establishment of colleges. In 1993, while non-Catholic and non-mainline Protestant Christians accounted for just 16.9% of the population, they accounted for 41% in 2003 Of particular interest is the Pentecostals emphasis on the gospel of prosperity –elimination of poverty by stressing the importance of socioeconomic success The development of skills and talents to find African solutions to the continents problems The Muslim communities have began to embrace the interaction of Islamic and Western secular education for socioeconomic development A variety of innovative efforts to address the issues of access and equity including summer remedial classes to prepare students to qualify for admission requirements, campuses in rural areas, flexible scheduling, and reduced tuition
Issues of Contention with Private Religious Higher Education The meaning of secular education in religious institutions The implications of deeply-held religious ideologies for open access and equity The limitations of religious institutions current focus: Theological Studies; ICT; Business Management Little attention to Science Courses and Faculty/Student Research Students funding options for private higher education The reinforcement of class privileges offered by fee-based private higher education for the children of the wealthy and elite The governments response to the demand of private religious and non-religious institution for public funding
Experiences With Higher Education: The Tale of Two Formerly Colonized Countries
Tertiary Education Strategies After Independence: Comparing Ghana & South Korea Ghana Slow growth of public tertiary education enrollment over the years In the late 1980s, the government formulated a reform program including: Measures to improve the financial sustainability of the system Increase quality and relevance Promote enrollment expansion Permission for private sector involvement in tertiary education South Korea The development of tertiary education has taken place in 4 distinct phases: Expansion of public institutions in the 1950s with cost-sharing equivalent to 30% of expenditures, Encouragement of private institutions with limited public funding in the 1960s (capital costs and scholarships) Expansion of engineering and technical education to meet manpower concerns in the 1970s and 1980s Focus on quality, R&D capacity, accountability, deregulation and performance-based funding in the 1990s.
Comparing Outcomes Ghana & South Korea Enrollment ratio for the eligible cohort has stagnated at under 2%. eligible age cohort The enrollment ratio for the eligible age cohort has skyrocketed from 5% to 80% between 1960 and 2000 Private institutions have emerged only recently and represent no more than 6% of total enrollment. Private tertiary institutions have proliferated enrolling 85% of the total student population in 2000 Public expenditure has been compressed drastically from $1,200 in 1990 to $850 in 2000 Public expenditure per student has gone up dramatically from $2,700 in 1990 to $4,500 in 2000 The enrollment of students in science and technology disciplines has remained relatively constant, at about 50% The enrollment of students in science and technology disciplines has remained relatively constant, at about 50% Linkages between tertiary education and industry have been relatively uncommon The government has actively promoted university-industry partnerships since the late 1980s
Knowledge Is a Key Factor in Explaining the Difference Between Poverty and Wealth
Can Ghana Learn From the Korean Experience? Language development Science and technology Research & development The role of foreign aid Family financial contributions to education The role of industry Ensuring access for the bright but needy
Ghanas New Educational Reforms, 2007 According to the government White Paper, the new reform was driven by the need to: …review the entire educational system in the country with a view of making it more responsive to current challenges… to examine the structure of education and to discuss issues affecting the development and delivery of education, the constrained access to different levels of the educational ladder, Information and Communication Technology and Distance Education…the crisis at the tertiary educational level, with insufficient places to meet the needs of a modernizing economy…difficulties in the development of the polytechnics within the scope of higher education, and the vexed problem of sustainable financing of the whole tertiary education sector.
Sustaining Higher Educational Attainment in Ghana Who are the beneficiaries of Higher Education today? Is Higher Education, then a Public Good? A Private Good, or a Mixture? How do we sustain funding for Higher Education? The contemporary struggle in Ghana today is about social, economic, and political power; and how that socio-economic- political power is distributed in the society across the geographic, ethnic, religious, and educational divide.