Presentation on theme: "Higher Education for Sustainable Development: Public or Private Good?"— Presentation transcript:
1Higher Education for Sustainable Development: Public or Private Good?
2What is Public Good Role of Govt in allocating resources Sandy Baum and Michael McPherson (2011) look at two characteristics :Non-excludability (non-payers cannot be excluded from consuming the good)Non-Rivalry in consumption (benefits to others are not diminished because others are consuming)
3Education as a Public Good The public benefits from people getting higher educationOften earn more money and pay more taxesBecome active citizens in a democracyInnovation generates new products and services for allBenefits shared by participants and rest of societyTherefore, the cost of public higher education to be borne by the stateSubsidies/SubventionsGrantsLoans
4Higher Education as a Private Good Benefits accrue solely to the individual and provides no public goodMany taxpayers who do not attend or use public funds do not benefitWaste of public funds to support to support programmes that would contribute to graduate unemployment
5Ghana’s Triple Heritage of Education Traditional/African EducationIslamic/Arabic EducationChristian/European Education
6Higher Education in Ghana: Public Good or Private Good? Who should provide higher education?Individuals?Families?Communities?Religious institutions?Government (i.e., the state)?Non-Government Organizations?
7Christianity and European Formal Education in Ghana Formal education starts with the European Christian MissionariesCastle schools to train children of Europeans & mulattosTrain and convert Africans
8Early Missionary Schools Akropong Teacher Training College [Boys], Akropong (Basel Mission-Presbyterian), 1848Mfantsipim [Boys], Cape Coast (Wesleyan Mission-- Methodist), 1876Adisadel College [Boys], Cape Coast (Church of England- -Anglican), 1910Wesley College [Boys], Kumasi (Wesleyan Mission- Methodist), 1924Ola Training College [Girls], Cape Coast (Roman Catholic- Our Lady of Apostles), 1926St. Augustine’s College [Boys], Cape Coast (Roman Catholic Mission), 1930Odomase Krobo Secondary School [Mixed], Krobo (Basel Mission-Presbyterian), 1938
9Achimota College: Departure from Missionary Education Established 1924 by the Colonial government and formally opened in 1927An elite secondary school based on the British model of public educationPublicly-funded by GovernmentInterdenominational, with students and staff practicing their own denomination of Christianity.
10Full Fledge Public Education Vision – to train boys and girls to be at ease in both traditional culture and western settings.Full kindergarten, primary, secondary, intermediate and teacher trainingEngineering and external degree courses from University of LondonAn instrument for controlling and directing the future of the country through changing people’s behavior and ideas
11Missionary Schools Cont’d Aggrey Memorial College [Mixed], Cape Coast, founded in 1940; named changed to Aggrey Memorial A.M.E. Zion Secondary School in 1947 (African Methodist Episcopal)Holy Child Secondary School [Girls], Cape Coast (Roman Catholic), 1946Prempeh College [Boys], Kumasi (Methodist-Presbyterian), 1949T.I. Ahamadiyya Secondary School [Mixed], Kumasi (Ahmadiyya Movement-Muslim), 1951Opoku Ware School [Boys], Kumasi (Roman Catholic), 1952Holy Child Training College [Girls], Tarkoradi (Roman Catholic), 1955SDA Teacher Training College [Mixed], Bekwai (Adventists)
12Birth of Public Universities in Ghana Achimota College gave birth to the first two public universities in GhanaUniversity of Ghana (1948)Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology (1961)
13Is Higher Education in Ghana a Public Good? James Cemmel examines the broad functions of Higher EducationResearch (development of new knowledge)Teaching (training of highly qualified personnel)Extension services (Working/providing services in the community)Ethical function (Social criticism)
14University of Ghana, Legon Founded in 1948 as the University College of London to provide university education, learning, and research in the then British colony. The original emphasis was on the liberal arts, social sciences, basic science, agriculture, and medicine
15Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Established in 1961 to provide higher education in science and technology for the technological development of the country
16University of Cape Coast Established in with a mandate to train highly qualified and skilled teachers and administrators, especially for the Ghana Education Service
17University for Development Studies Established in 1992 as a multi-campus institution with a mission to blend the academic world with that of the community for the total development of northern Ghana
18University of Education, Winneba Established in 1992 for teacher education for second-cycle institutions
19Demand for Higher Education in Ghana UNESCO estimates that in Ghana, only 2.6% of all children who enter primary schools eventually make it to the tertiary levelToday, the demand for higher education in the country is very high resulting is a rapid increase in enrollmentEnrollments in Ghana’s national universities have increased significantly in the last two decades following the publication of the University Rationalization Report in 1988Still, Ghanaian public universities can only offer admissions to about 35% of qualified applicants
20Expanding the Structure of Higher Education in Ghana The term Tertiary Education is adopted in 1992 in the 4th Republic of GhanaThe new Constitution established the National Council for Tertiary Education (NCTE)Higher Education expanded to include ALL post-secondary educational institutions:UniversitiesUniversity CollegesPolytechnicsProfessional InstitutionsNCTE becomes the advisory body on tertiary education to the Minister of EducationA Minister of State for Tertiary Education was appointed in 2003
21Ghana’s Road to Privatization of Higher Education Under the Education Sector Reform of the country’s Economic Recovery Program of the late 1980s, private providers were given official permission to establish institutions of higher educationThe National Accreditation Board (NAB) was established in to accredit both public and private tertiary institutions for contents, standards, and managementReligious organizations and individual have embarked on efforts to establish private colleges and universitiesBetween 1995 and 2007, the NAB has accredited 25 private universities and colleges, 70% of which are religious-basedWith the exception of the Islamic University College, all of the private religious institutions of higher education are Christian- sponsored
22Why Proliferation of Private Religious Higher Education in Ghana? To increase access to qualified individuals who do not gain admission to the traditional public universitiesTo provide quality and practically-oriented education in the African cultural contextTo focus on Theology, Business-related, and ICT coursesTo train individuals to assume leadership roles in the various religious organizationsTo address indiscipline in the societyStrengthen spiritual development to counteract the excesses of Western consumer culture
23Representations of Private Religious Institutions in Ghana ProtestantsValley View University (Seventh-Day Adventists)Methodist University CollegeAfrican PentecostalsCentral University College (International Central Gospel Church)Roman CatholicCatholic University CollegeIslamicIslamic University College (Ahlul-Bait Foundation of Islamic Republic of Iran)
24Contemporary Views on Religion and Educational Attainment Religion and globalization combine to shape the social and cultural landscape of the countryAfrican Pentecostal Christian groups and charismatic movements have grown dramatically and taken serious interest in the establishment of colleges. In 1993, while non-Catholic and non-mainline Protestant Christians accounted for just 16.9% of the population, they accounted for 41% in 2003Of particular interest is the Pentecostals’ emphasis on “the gospel of prosperity” –elimination of poverty by stressing the importance of socioeconomic successThe development of skills and talents to find African solutions to the continent’s problemsThe Muslim communities’ have began to embrace the interaction of Islamic and Western secular education for socioeconomic developmentA variety of innovative efforts to address the issues of access and equity including summer remedial classes to prepare students to qualify for admission requirements, campuses in rural areas, flexible scheduling, and reduced tuition
25Issues of Contention with Private Religious Higher Education The meaning of secular education in religious institutionsThe implications of deeply-held religious ideologies for open access and equityThe limitations of religious institution’s current focus:Theological Studies; ICT; Business ManagementLittle attention to Science Courses and Faculty/Student ResearchStudents’ funding options for private higher educationThe reinforcement of class privileges offered by fee-based private higher education for the children of the wealthy and eliteThe government’s response to the demand of private religious and non-religious institution for public funding
26Experiences With Higher Education: The Tale of Two Formerly Colonized Countries
27Tertiary Education Strategies After Independence: Comparing Ghana & South Korea Slow growth of public tertiary education enrollment over the yearsIn the late 1980s, the government formulated a reform program including:Measures to improve the financial sustainability of the systemIncrease quality and relevancePromote enrollment expansionPermission for private sector involvement in tertiary educationSouth KoreaThe development of tertiary education has taken place in 4 distinct phases:Expansion of public institutions in the 1950s with cost-sharing equivalent to 30% of expenditures,Encouragement of private institutions with limited public funding in the 1960s (capital costs and scholarships)Expansion of engineering and technical education to meet manpower concerns in the 1970s and 1980sFocus on quality, R&D capacity, accountability, deregulation and performance-based funding in the 1990s.
28Comparing Outcomes Ghana & South Korea Enrollment ratio for the eligible cohort has stagnated at under 2%. eligible age cohortThe enrollment ratio for the eligible age cohort has skyrocketed from 5% to 80% between 1960 and 2000Private institutions have emerged only recently and represent no more than 6% of total enrollment.Private tertiary institutions have proliferated enrolling 85% of the totalstudent population in 2000Public expenditure has been compressed drastically from $1,200in 1990 to $850 in 2000Public expenditure per student has gone up dramatically from $2,700 in 1990 to $4,500 in 2000The enrollment of students in science and technology disciplines has remainedrelatively constant, at about 50%Linkages between tertiary education and industry have been relatively uncommonThe government has actively promoted university-industry partnershipssince the late 1980s
29Knowledge Is a Key Factor in Explaining the Difference Between Poverty and Wealth
30Can Ghana Learn From the Korean Experience? Language developmentScience and technologyResearch & developmentThe role of foreign aidFamily financial contributions to educationThe role of industryEnsuring access for the bright but needy
31Ghana’s New Educational Reforms, 2007 According to the government White Paper, the new reform was driven by the need to:“…review the entire educational system in the country with a view of making it more responsive to current challenges… to examine the structure of education and to discuss issues affecting the development and delivery of education, the constrained access to different levels of the educational ladder, Information and Communication Technology and Distance Education…the crisis at the tertiary educational level, with insufficient places to meet the needs of a modernizing economy…difficulties in the development of the polytechnics within the scope of higher education, and the vexed problem of sustainable financing of the whole tertiary education sector.”
32Sustaining Higher Educational Attainment in Ghana Who are the beneficiaries of Higher Education today?Is Higher Education, then a Public Good? A Private Good, or a Mixture?How do we sustain funding for Higher Education?The contemporary struggle in Ghana today is about social, economic, and political power; and how that socio-economic- political power is distributed in the society across the geographic, ethnic, religious, and educational divide.