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A new system of labour management in African large-scale agriculture? LONE RIISGAARD* & PETER GIBBON * Roskilde University Danish Institute of International.

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Presentation on theme: "A new system of labour management in African large-scale agriculture? LONE RIISGAARD* & PETER GIBBON * Roskilde University Danish Institute of International."— Presentation transcript:

1 A new system of labour management in African large-scale agriculture? LONE RIISGAARD* & PETER GIBBON * Roskilde University Danish Institute of International Studies and Manchester University DSA, SEPTEMBER 2012

2 THE EXISTING LITERATURE ON LABOUR REGIMES AFRICAN LSA, 1920- ca. 1980AFRICAN LSA, POST-1980 CENTRALITY OF PATERNALISM/PATRONAGE WAGE RELATION BECOMES CENTRAL DOMESTIC SERVICE EMPLOYMENT MODEL (ON-FARM RESIDENCE, FAMILY LABOUR POOL, IRREGULAR AND ONLY PARTLY MONETIZED PAYMENT) REGULARISATION OF EMPLOYMENT FOR MINORITY OF MALES; SEASONALISATION/CASUALISATION OF OTHER EMPLOYMENT (ETHNICISED AND GENDERED) DAILY-TASK-BASED SYSTEM OF LABOUR DEPLOYMENT AND REMUNERATION GENDERED SEASONAL AND CASUAL LABOUR SUBJECT TO PIECEWORK PAYMENT SYSTEMS DESPOTIC SUPERVISIONPETTY DESPOTISM DIIS DANISH INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL STUDIES

3 RESEARCH DESIGN, METHODS, LIMITATIONS STUDY OF LABOUR REGIMES ON LARGE-SCALE KENYAN CUT FLOWER FARMS, LOW SEASON 2011 SAMPLE DELIBERATELY OVER-REPRESENTED FARMS CERTIFIED TO STANDARDS WITH SOCIAL CLAUSES (10 OF 11 FARMS IN SAMPLE, cf. 78 OF 177 IN TOTAL POPULATION) FARMS CERTIFIED TO STANDARDS WITH SOCIAL CLAUSES ARE LARGER THAN AVERAGE: BUT CONSEQUENTLY THEY ALSO ACCOUNT FOR THE BULK OF THE SECTORS PRODUCTION AREA, EMPLOYMENT AND OUTPUT SMALL WORKER AND SUPERVISOR SURVEYS (n S =113 and 39), 17 FGDs, INTERVIEWS WITH MANAGEMENT FARMS IN THIKA DISTRICT ALSO OVER-REPRESENTED

4 DOMINANCE OF A NORM OF STABLE, SECURE, FAIR EMPLOYMENT PERMANENT EMPLOYMENT DOMINATES TOTAL EMPLOYMENT (>85%) HALF OF ALL WORKERS HAVE WORKED CONTINUOUSLY ON SAME FARM FOR >4 YEARS INSTITUTIONALIZED SYSTEM OF PROGRESSION FROM TEMPORARY TO PERMANENT STATUS CONVERGENCE BETWEEN TEMPORARY AND PERMANENT WORKERS EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS SHARE OF WOMEN IN PERMANENT EMPLOYMENT (57.1%) ALMOST IDENTICAL WITH SHARE IN TOTAL EMPLOYMENT (55.1%)

5 EMPLOYERS GET MORE FROM LESS BY WORK INTENSIFICATION WITHIN A FRAMEWORK ASSUMING SECURE EMPLOYMENT GREENHOUSE WORKER DEPLOYMENT SYSTEMS INTENSIFIED TO A STANDARDIZED NORM OF 10.4 WORKERS/HA. TASK RE-DESIGN SINCE 2005 BASED ON WORKER RESPONSIBILIZATION (BED OWNERSHIP). TIME-BASED PAY ONLY PACKHOUSE SYSTEMS MOSTLY ALSO SHIFTING TO LESS DETAILED DIVISION OF LABOUR (RECOMBINATION OF GRADING AND BUNCHING), c/w CLOSER MONITORING OF QUALITY. PIECE PAYMENT SYSTEMS EXIST IN PACKHOUSES, BUT AS SUPPLEMENT TO TIME RATES. WORK INTENSIFICATION TAKES PLACE IN FORMS ASSUMING WORKERS BASIC LITERACY AND NUMERACY AND RELYING ON THEIR ACCRETION OF TACIT SKILLS OVER TIME

6 MANAGERIALISATION OF SUPERVISION FARMS MAIN TRAINING EFFORT SINCE 2008 HAS BEEN TRAINING SUPERVISORS. ALMOST ALL 39 S/VSRS INTERVIEWED WERE TRAINED IN MOTIVATION AND COMMUNICATION: MOST SUPERVISORS NO LONGER SEE KEEPING DISCIPLINE AS AMONGST THEIR MAIN ROLES (cf. 10 YEARS AGO) WORKER NON-COMPLETION OF DAILY TASK GENERALLY DE-LISTED AS A DISCIPLINARY OFFENCE FAR MORE SUPERVISORY AND MANAGERIAL DECISIONS NOW COVERED BY RULES AND PROCEDURES, REDUCING SCOPE FOR DESPOTISM AN UPPER TIER OF SUPERVISORS WITH QUASI-MANAGEMENT STATUS PRESENT ON MOST SAMPLED FARMS

7 PAY LOW AND FALLING IN REAL TERMS, BUT SUBJECT TO NATIONAL COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AND SUPPLEMENTED BY HIGH SOCIAL WAGE MAY 2011 MEDIAN TAKE HOME PAY = Sh 6,480 (MEAN = Sh 6,947) - 17% LOWER IN REAL TERMS THAN IN 2002 (cf DOLAN et al 2005) STEADY COMPRESSION SINCE 2002 IN DIFFERENTIALS BETWEEN THE NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL MINIMUM WAGE, THE SECTOR C.B.A. RATE AND AVERAGE TAKE HOME PAY HOWEVER A MUCH LARGER PROPORTION OF FARMS AND WORKERS NOW COVERED BY THE C.B.A. (60 of 150 OPERATERS WERE SIGNATORIES IN 2010). MEDIAN UNION DENSITY 2011 = 55% (PROBABLY INFLATED BY SAMPLING BIAS) ON MOST SAMPLED FARMS STANDARDS + THE C.B.A. MEANT WORKERS BENEFITTED FROM PAID ANNUAL LEAVE, MATERNITY/PATERNITY AND SICK LEAVE, HOUSING AND TRAVEL ALLOWANCES, DAY CARE, MEDICAL CARE AND SOCIAL INSURANCE

8 SUMMING-UP in terms of LABOUR MANAGEMENT CONVENTIONS – REGULARISATION AND LEGALISATION DomesticIndustrialMarketCivic Hiring Personal acquaintance, historical tie Impersonal; Technical/Educ qualification Impersonal, Cost and flexibility Fair – Quotas where necessary Training, Promotion Sons work with their fathers; seniority system Tech. training where functional; qualification- based promotion On-the-job training only; promotion based on signs of drive Welfare-related (H&S) training; promotion based on persl responsibility Retention Stabilization through residence and patronage Stabilization through high wages Casualization and outsourcing where feasible Stabilization through employment security Work orgztn/ deployment Gang system, deplymt by physical attribute Scientific planning of work; inter-changeable workers Adjustable, demand- responsive Responsibilizing; consensual deplymt Payment systems Not-only-cash; strong discretionary element (bonuses, fines) Rule (time- and productivity-) based Adjustable piece rates where feasible Time-based only Supervision systems Despotic, highly dependent on owners authority Supervsr as prodn monitor and tech problem-solver Despotic, modified by pragmatism Flat supervsn (motivational, team building) Industrial politics Paternalist Corporatist, technocratic IndividualistLegalistic DIIS DANISH INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL STUDIES (CURRENT PRACTICE, NOT NECESSARILY SUCCESSFUL, INDICATED BY RED TEXT)

9 WHAT ARE THE DRIVERS? STABILIZATION OF PRODUCTION SYSTEMS - PHYSICAL AREA/OUTPUT, PRODUCT SPECIALISATION (INTERMEDIATE ROSES), LABOUR-INTENSIVE TECHNOLOGIES MARKET STABILISATION, BASED ON INCREASED EXPORTS TO THE AUCTIONS (AND LOWER DEPENDANCE ON UK DIRECT EXPORTS) – MAINTENANCE FROM 2004 OF CONSTANT 55-60% SHARE OF EU IMPORTS AND UNIT PRICES @ 3.50-3.75/kg. DEMAND-SIDE DEVELOPMENTS – INCREASED SALIENCE OF QUALITY; INCREASED ROLE OF FARM REPUTATION IN AUCTION SYSTEM; INCREASED SALIENCE OF STANDARDS AND OF CONFORMITY WITH NATIONAL LAWS INCREASING INTERACTION OF MANAGERS WITHIN THE SECTOR, AROUND KFC FORA DIIS DANISH INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL STUDIES


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