Presentation on theme: "Evolution of Chinas Humanitarian Assistance: From the Darfur Crisis to South Sudan Biya HAN UN Central Emergency Response Fund; LIU Ge Trilateral Cooperation."— Presentation transcript:
Evolution of Chinas Humanitarian Assistance: From the Darfur Crisis to South Sudan Biya HAN UN Central Emergency Response Fund; LIU Ge Trilateral Cooperation Secretariat; & Eun Mee Kim Graduate School of International Studies, Ewha Womans University DSA 2012 Annual Conference November 3, 2012
Table of Contents I. Introduction II.Overview of Chinas Development Cooperation and Humanitarian Assistance Policies and Practice III.Chinas Humanitarian Assistance to Darfur Compared to South Sudan IV. Conclusion 2
I. Introduction Criticisms of Chinas global role in development cooperation (South-South Cooperation) Chinas growing presence in international humanitarian assistance(IHA): – Has China become a more globally responsible citizen? – Has the global community embraced Chinas growing role? What can we learn from Chinas IHA in the Darfur Crisis vs. South Sudan? 3
Definitions of Humanitarian Assistance 1. OECD and UN agencies: Assistance designed to save lives, alleviate suffering, and maintain and protect human dignity during and in the aftermath of emergencies. 2. OECD (2007): Short-term aid is provided during sudden natural or man made disasters as well as support for disaster preparedness and mitigation. 3. World Bank: Humanitarian aid does not target states and their development, but individuals, independent of race, country or citizenship. 4
Chinas Development Cooperation (South-South Cooperation) Principles and Strategies 1.1964 Aid principles: Equality, Mutual Benefit, Respect for Sovereignty of State, No Conditions 2.1978 Policy Reform: More Pragmatic approach to development cooperation; Multilateral aid 3.2011 Go Forward into the World as the Chinese National Foreign Strategy Aid Volume 1.The Chinese government does not offer comprehensive data on its foreign aid 2.Chinas foreign aid volume: About USD 2.5 billion (Lancaster 2007) 3.256.29 billion yuan in aid (2011, White Paper) Key Characteristics 1.Bilateral 2.Aid as a part of a development package including investment and trade 3.Economic infrastructure sector (61%) 4.Tied aid; extensive use of Chinese goods labor force 5 II. Overview of Chinas Development Cooperation (South- South Cooperation) and Humanitarian Assistance
Chinas Aid to Africa China has given foreign assistance to 48 African countries (1956-2012). About 46.7 percent of Chinas total aid has been to Africa Five Cornerstones (Jiang Zemin, President of China, 1993-2003): Six Pillars (Hu Jintao, President of China, 2003-present): China-Africa Relations Diversify oil and natural supply sources Secure leading role in Africa and develop markets Forum on China - Africa Cooperation (FOCAC 2000) : Africa is second largest source of China's crude oil imports (24%), followed by the Middle East (51%). Sudan and South Sudan are the third largest African oil supplier (US Energy Information Administration 2011). 6
Comparison of Development Cooperation: Global Patterns vs. the Chinese Way Global PatternsChina 1.Terminology of Foreign Aid Official Development Assistance (ODA): Grants & Concessional Loans South-South Cooperation: Grants, Interest free loan & Concessional loans from the Ministry of Finance and EXIM bank 2.Economic vs. Social Development Social development; Social infrastructure Economic development; Economic infrastructure 3.National Interest vs. Humanitarian Needs National interest Humanitarian needs of development partners National interest In process of changing 4.Key Characteristics Accountability Sustainability Conditionality (human rights, good governance, environment) Quick and immediate impact Tied aid 7
Comparison of Humanitarian Assistance: Global Patterns vs. the Chinese Way Global PatternsChina 1.Economic Status of Donor(s) Developed countriesDeveloping country 2.Definition of Humanitarian Aid Short-term aid; Sudden natural or man-made disasters (OECD) Part of development aid; Blurred definition & understanding between foreign aid & humanitarian assistance 3.Funding Mechanism Centralized : Official Development Assistance (ODA) Decentralized: South-South Cooperation: Grants, Interest free loan & Concessional loans from the Ministry of Finance and EXIM bank 8
III. Chinas Humanitarian Assistance to Darfur Crisis Compared to South Sudan 1. Background 1) Sudan until 2011 Independence in 1956 from British and Egypt War broke out between Muslim vs. Christian & native religion Major oil found in 1983 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement 2011 July South Sudan became independent 2) Darfur Crisis (2003-2010) Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) vs. Janjaweed Accusing the government of oppressing black Africans in favor of Arabs 300,000 died, 2.7 million displaced, 200,000 refugees fled to Chad Genocide, ethnic cleansing, massive rape Indictment of the President of Sudan (International Criminal Court [ICC]) Humanitarian Crisis 3) South Sudan (2011-present) During 40 years long war, 2 million people died, 4 million were displaced High oil dependence: 98% of the government revenue Humanitarian indicators : - Food insecurity: 50% (4.7 M) of the population - Infant mortality: 170 per 1,000 (World Bank 2011) - Maternal mortality: 135 per 1,000 - Malnutrition rate under 5 – 15-22% (Unicef 2012) Humanitarian Crisis 9
2. Two Tales of Chinas Intervention in Two Humanitarian Crises: Darfur vs. South Sudan Darfur Crisis (2003-10)South Sudan (2011-present) Similarities (China) 1.Non- interference policy; aid without conditions 2.Humanitarian assistance as part of development aid 3.Bilateral and Infrastructure-oriented aid Differences (China) 1.Bilateral aid only 2.Infrastructure stands alone (mainly oil related) 3. Provision of standard HA package 4. Avoidance of global issues China acted on its own. 1.Bilateral and multilateral aid (UN agencies : WFP, UNDP) 2.Provision of infrastructure and social services 3. Alignment with South Sudans national strategy, need-based approach 4. Cooperation with global agenda China acting as part of Intl community Global Community How China was perceived 1.Humanitarian assistance space was very limited. 2.Global Community did not include China in the global discussions 3. Global Community heavily criticized for Chinas Non- interference policy and not using its influence properly to help resolve the crisis What China has been doing 1.China is acting more in line with global standards in practice 2.China slowly winning the hearts of South Sudanese with its long-term commitment 3. China acting as a mediator 10
Factors Contributing to the Differences/Changes in Chinas Involvement in the Two Crises 1. Global political environment Darfur- (part of condemned state) China was Isolated from the West. Vetoed UNSC motions China was major economic partner as well as important political patron S. Sudan - (a new nation) China is freely offering aid as part of intl community. From receiving criticism To growing expectations of Chinas role as major player toward nation building and a mediator between Sudan and South Sudan toward bringing peace 2. Chinas global role China has begun to consider its global image and influence as well national pride as a new world leader More active engagement with multilateral agencies: UN Peacekeeping Mission, WFP, UNDP More active participation in global forums: HLF-4 (Busan, South Korea, 2011), Rio + 20 (Rio, Brazil, 2012) Good Humanitarian Donorship (GHD) initiative 3. Analysis of Chinas Humanitarian Assistance to Darfur vs. South Sudan 11
4. Key Findings 12 1)Earlier studies on Chinas development cooperation were critical of Chinas strong national interest-based aid. 2)Chinas development cooperation and increasing humanitarian assistance cannot be explained solely by national interest. 3)Chinese political, economic interests: In Africa, Sudan and South Sudan are Chinas important economic partners (trade and resources). Therefore, it is very important to maintain security and stability in both countries. 4)Global pressure, and Chinas own recognition of its growing global influence, have led to changes in Chinas behavior in IHA.
1.Significance for academic research on China and Development Cooperation 1)More empirical research is needed to better understand Chinas S-S Cooperation and humanitarian assistance. 2)Determinants of Chinas IHA have changed: national interest more recognition of humanitarian needs 3)China is behaving more in line with global norms for humanitarian assistance 2.Policy Recommendations for the Global Community 1)Recognize China as an important player in IHA in terms of volume and content; Not as a competitor but as a complementary partner 2)Encourage China to play a more important role in the global aid community: e.g. as a mediator in Africa, as a leader in disaster mitigation sector 13 IV. Conclusion
3. Policy Recommendations for China 1)Understand the responsibility that comes with its influential role 2)Rethink the scope of S-S Cooperation More engagement with global forums and global issues - climate change, environment, etc. From economic infrastructure-focused assistance to social infrastructure and service Involve the civil society and emphasize local capacity building 3)Play a more active role as a mediator 14
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