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Born Bad Workshop My involvement with Uniview: Free monthly teaching download available from www.uniview.co.uk e-xtension pages (link on homepage). www.uniview.co.uk.

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Presentation on theme: "Born Bad Workshop My involvement with Uniview: Free monthly teaching download available from www.uniview.co.uk e-xtension pages (link on homepage). www.uniview.co.uk."— Presentation transcript:

1 Born Bad Workshop My involvement with Uniview: Free monthly teaching download available from e-xtension pages (link on homepage). Collaboration on psychology productions such as PsyKits. Visit the Uniview stand at the ATP conference for: High quality teaching resources ranging from posters, models and classroom extras to resource packs, dvds and cd-roms. 15% off all resources purchased at the conference.

2 Julia Russell Born bad? What are the causes of crime?

3 Is menacing behaviour like stalking a product of nature or nurture?

4 Are some people biologically predisposed to become criminals?

5 Do psychological factors affect the incidence of criminality?

6 Is antisocial behaviour a product of social factors?

7 Biological explanations

8 Atavism

9 prominent eyebrow ridges large ears protruding chin narrow sloping brow X ?

10 Facebook group: Worst Passport Photos In the Wrold Yahoo group

11 Body build: somatotypes

12 SOMATOTYPE ACTIVITY

13 endomorphic fa and soft sociable, relaxed ectomorphic thin and fragile introverted, restrained mesomorphic muscular and hard aggressive, adventurous …and criminal William Sheldon somatotypes

14 XYY

15 Family studies

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17 25% 50% parents grandparents aunts/uncles siblings

18 Farrington et al (1991) 6% of families responsible for 50% of crimes How many of the families would you expect to be responsible for half of all the crimes committed? Here are 33 families Hearty, the Captain; Snuffet, the Undertaker; Snoot, the First Class Passenger; Deck, the Swabhand; Stitches, the Sailmaker; Block, the Barber; Bones, the Butcher; Brush, the Artist; Wig the lawyer; Bud, the Florist; Bun, the Baker ; Bung, the Brewer; Chalk, the Teacher; Chip, the Carpenter; Constable, the Policeman; Creep, the Crook; Dose, the Doctor; Dip, the Dyer; Byte the programmer; Field, the Farmer; Flea, the vet; Green, the Greengrocer; Grits, the Grocer; Jumbo, the pilot; Mug, the Milkman; Pipe, the plumber; Sole, the Fisherman; Soot, the Sweep; Stamp, the Postman; Tape, the Tailor; Teeth, the dentist; Tuckin, the Chef; Pots, the Painter. Here are 33 families Hearty, the Captain; Snuffet, the Undertaker; Snoot, the First Class Passenger; Deck, the Swabhand; Stitches, the Sailmaker; Block, the Barber; Bones, the Butcher; Brush, the Artist; Wig the lawyer; Bud, the Florist; Bun, the Baker ; Bung, the Brewer; Chalk, the Teacher; Chip, the Carpenter; Constable, the Policeman; Creep, the Crook; Dose, the Doctor; Dip, the Dyer; Byte the programmer; Field, the Farmer; Flea, the vet; Green, the Greengrocer; Grits, the Grocer; Jumbo, the pilot; Mug, the Milkman; Pipe, the plumber; Sole, the Fisherman; Soot, the Sweep; Stamp, the Postman; Tape, the Tailor; Teeth, the dentist; Tuckin, the Chef; Pots, the Painter.

19 The Creeps and just one other… How many of the families would you expect to be responsible for half of all the crimes committed? Here are 33 Happy Families Hearty, the Captain; Snuffet, the Undertaker; Snoot, the First Class Passenger; Deck, the Swabhand; Stitches, the Sailmaker; Block, the Barber; Bones, the Butcher; Brush, the Artist; Wig the lawyer; Bud, the Florist; Bun, the Baker ; Bung, the Brewer; Chalk, the Teacher; Chip, the Carpenter; Constable, the Policeman; Creep, the Crook; Dose, the Doctor; Dip, the Dyer; Byte the programmer; Field, the Farmer; Flea, the vet; Green, the Greengrocer; Grits, the Grocer; Jumbo, the pilot; Mug, the Milkman; Pipe, the plumber; Sole, the Fisherman; Soot, the Sweep; Stamp, the Postman; Tape, the Tailor; Teeth, the dentist; Tuckin, the Chef; Pots, the Painter. Here are 33 Happy Families Hearty, the Captain; Snuffet, the Undertaker; Snoot, the First Class Passenger; Deck, the Swabhand; Stitches, the Sailmaker; Block, the Barber; Bones, the Butcher; Brush, the Artist; Wig the lawyer; Bud, the Florist; Bun, the Baker ; Bung, the Brewer; Chalk, the Teacher; Chip, the Carpenter; Constable, the Policeman; Creep, the Crook; Dose, the Doctor; Dip, the Dyer; Byte the programmer; Field, the Farmer; Flea, the vet; Green, the Greengrocer; Grits, the Grocer; Jumbo, the pilot; Mug, the Milkman; Pipe, the plumber; Sole, the Fisherman; Soot, the Sweep; Stamp, the Postman; Tape, the Tailor; Teeth, the dentist; Tuckin, the Chef; Pots, the Painter. Farrington et al (1991) 6% of families responsible for 50% of crimes

20 Osborn & West (1979) Only 13% of sons of non-criminal fathers had convictions, but 40% of sons of criminal fathers had convictions… But what about the other 60%? 13% criminal sons 40% criminal sons Non-criminal families (the Blocks, the Tapes and the Boneses) Criminal families (the Crooks)

21 Twin and adoption studies

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26 Adoption studies Mednick et al. (1987) surveyed court convictions in Denmark which included 14,427 adoptees. The criminal records of their biological and adoptive parents showed that many of these adoptees had criminal biological parents (especially for those with chronic offender parents and for father/sons) – supporting the biological explanation (although the type of crime was unrelated). Where there was an improvement in social conditions there was a reduction in crime – contradicting the biological explanation. However, if the biological parents conviction occurred before adoption, the adoptive parents were informed. This might have had and effect…

27 adopted before conviction adopted after conviction sons daughters adopted before conviction adopted after conviction sons daughters Percentage of offspring convicted adopted before conviction adopted after conviction sons daughters44

28 …but we arent saying that environment doesnt matter biological parents have criminal record adoptive parents have criminal record % of sons with criminal record (Mednick, 1987) % of sons with criminal record (Bohman, 1995) no noyes14.77

29 …but environmental and biological factors together… biological parents have criminal record adoptive parents have criminal record % of sons with criminal record (Mednick, 1987) % of sons with criminal record (Bohman, 1995) no yesno noyes14.77 yes

30 Genes

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32 neurotransmission Potentiation by nitric oxide

33 Nelson et al. (1995) found that male mice with the nNOS2/2 gene deleted were more aggressive than normal. Demas et al. (1999) found that deleting eNOS2/2 eliminated aggression in male mice – even though they had extra-strong front legs!

34

35 Test yourself

36 Test yourself: Impulsiveness NON-PLANNINGMOTOR IMPULSIVENESS COGNITIVE IMPULSIVENESS TOTAL IMPULSIVENESSPERCENTILE

37 Reif et al. (2009) impulsivity in humans is linked to NOS1. One variant in participants from psychiatric clinics (including 182 criminals) was more frequent in adults with ADHD, some personality disorders, and aggressive behaviour. In these individuals, the gene variant also reduced activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (which processes information about emotion and reward). Impulsive behaviour and criminal behaviour appear to be linked impulsivity

38 Brains and neurotransmitters

39 prefrontal cortex

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41 amygdala hypothalamus

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45 Psychological explanations

46 Self-fulfilling prophecy

47 Mondays child is fair of face, Tuesdays child is full of grace, Wednesdays child is full of woe, Thursdays child has far to go, Fridays child is loving and giving, Saturdays child works hard for his living, And the child that is born on the Sabbath day Is bonny and blithe, and good and gay.

48 SallyJennyKevin DaveBettyBelinda AngelaMikeJade TraceyAlanValerie SandraYasminKaren

49 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday

50 Signs of the zodiac Aries 20 March – 20 April Taurus 20 April – 21 May Gemini 21 May – 21 June Cancer 21 June – 22 July Leo 22 July – 23 August Virgo 23 August – 23 September Libra 23 September – 23 October Scorpio 23 October – 22 November Sagittarius 22 November – 22 December Capricorn 22 December – 20 January Aquarius 20 January – 18 February Pisces 18 February – 20 March

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52 Jahoda (1954) boys names Children in Ashanti and other Akan areas of Ghana, West Africa are given soul names which relate to a day of the week: Monday: Kwadowo Wednesday: Kwaku mild-mannered and peace-loving aggressive and violent

53 13.5% of boys referred to the courts had Wednesday as part of their name...but they were responsible for much more (22%) of the violent crimes. Only 6.9% of juvenile delinquents were Monday boys, although Monday boys were 13% of the population

54 Madon et al. (2003)

55 community payback community payback

56 Psychoticism

57 Hans Eysenck

58 Social explanations

59 Social learning

60 Children See, Children Do video

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63 St Helena Island

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