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Strengthening Democracy in the EU: Alternative Forms of Representation REPRESENTATION IN PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACIES: The European Parliament as a Deviant.

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Presentation on theme: "Strengthening Democracy in the EU: Alternative Forms of Representation REPRESENTATION IN PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACIES: The European Parliament as a Deviant."— Presentation transcript:

1 Strengthening Democracy in the EU: Alternative Forms of Representation REPRESENTATION IN PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACIES: The European Parliament as a Deviant Case PROFESSOR RICHARD ROSE Visiting Professor European University Institute This is paper is part of a project on Representing Europeans funded by British Economic & Social Research Council grant RES

2 DIFFERENT FORMS OF REPRESENTATION IN SECOND CHAMBERS POPULAR ELECTION OF MOST MEMBERS Czech Republic Italy Poland Romania Spain FEDERAL REPRESENTATION OF TERRITORIES AustriaBelgiumGermanySwitzerland AustraliaUnited States REGIONAL, LOCAL REPRESENTATION FranceNetherlands CORPORATIST IrelandSlovenia APPOINTED Canada United Kingdom 2

3 CROSS-NATIONAL INEQUALITY IN REPRESENTATION Index of inequality (100 = complete equality) Source: Calculated by dividing the population per MEP in each country by the number of electors per MEP in the whole EU, as reported in Table 1, and multiplying the result by 100. Under- represented Over- represented 3

4 GROWING INEQUALITY IN REPRESENTATION OF EU CITIZENS Note: Gini coefficient calculated on the distribution of seats at the start of each Parliament. Gini coefficient Year of European Parliament election 4

5 CO-DECISION IS NOT A BICAMERAL BALANCE Gini index 5 Qualified Majority Vote EP seats Gini indexes

6 PERMANENT COMMITMENTS BY TRANSITORY NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS Source: European Journal of Political Research, Political Data Yearbook 2005, 2006, 2007 and Vote for national governments in EU member states Vote for governing parties national election before 2009 EP ballot 6

7 INEQUALITIES IN REPRESENTATION COMPARED Gini Coefficient US Senate.50 Bundesrat.35 EC: Qualified Majority Vote.35 European Parliament.27 Bundestag.04 U.S. House.04 7

8 EVALUATING PROPOSALS FOR REFORMING THE EP Gini Coefficient Countries GainLose Existing EP.27n.a. + Croatia, Iceland Square root formula Base + prop Double majority referendum Popular vote.00n.a. StatesVariable


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