Presentation on theme: "Are water and sanitation problems wicked? Frances Cleaver Water for Africa Research Project SOAS."— Presentation transcript:
Are water and sanitation problems wicked? Frances Cleaver Water for Africa Research Project SOAS
Wicked or just complex? Truly complex, post-normal etc. Technical/managerial solutions cannot be separated from equity and governance issues. Plurality of perspectives on the nature of the problem. No stopping point. Solutions not true or false but good or bad in particular social contexts.
The nature of the problem(s) MDG perspective Basic needs and health/hygiene problem? Time/convenience/privacy problem? Complex livelihoods problem? Wider wellbeing problem? Environmental/resource management problem?
When is the problem solved? Targets for coverage/access (But are these sufficient in development terms?) Solving the coverage/access problem leads to ongoing sustainability problem…. Even at more developed levels of service/coverage ongoing/newly arising problems.
Plural and partial solutions Plurality of stakeholders, governance arrangements, uses of water ….. Technology Institutions Financing Unanticipated consequences of intended actions.
Implications We need to change our approach…(to wicked problems)….There are no experts on these problems, nor can there be. Instead we should establish and maintain a dialogue among the various interested parties. (Ludwig 2001) Implications for development agencies? How do they need to change culture and style to facilitate resolution wicked problems?