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The Challenges of Chinese Universities in the Next Decades Jianhua Lin Executive vice president and provost Peking University.

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Presentation on theme: "The Challenges of Chinese Universities in the Next Decades Jianhua Lin Executive vice president and provost Peking University."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Challenges of Chinese Universities in the Next Decades Jianhua Lin Executive vice president and provost Peking University

2 2 Context Historic view Some issues Future 2

3 3 Historic view: Ancient Education Traditional Chinese higher education More than 2000 years Sishu: Private School Shuyuan: Private college of classical learning Taixue: Imperial college Core value of traditional Great Learning What the great learning teaches, is to illustrate illustrious virtue; to renovate the people; and to rest in the highest excellence emphasizing on rectifying ones heart, cultivating person The main purpose of traditional learning Utilitarianism: good scholar can become an official Sciences: not developed in Chinese education system

4 4 Modern higher education institutions The missionary colleges Saint Johns college founded 1879 There were 14 missionary college in 1919 The national colleges Tianjing University Imperial Tientsin University, 1895 Focussing on technology Peking University Imperial University of Peking, 1898 The administrative ministry of higher education in China Many universities were founded in the beginning of the 20th century Liberal arts education

5 5 Research Universities in China The former president Cai Yuanpei of PKU Recruiting new faculty Reforming the system of PKU First graduate schools in China Graduate institutes at PKU, 1917 Overall graduate school was founded in 1932 Research at universities The facilities at PKU were comparable to some universities in US in 1930 The devotion and enthusiasm of faculty and students for research was much higher

6 6 Historic view: Chinese universities Relocation of disciplines in 1952 More specialized universities PKU: humanities, social sciences and natural sciences Tsinghua: purely technology oriented Single mission: serve to the industrialization of China Only few universities maintained research Education become more specialized Cultural revolution All universities were closedown for about 10 years Opening policy in 1978 1978~1998 slow moving 1998~2010 takeoff First total synthesis of insulin in 1965

7 7 Some issues Scale of high education Merging of universities 7

8 8 Expansion of Chinese universities Expanding size of universities The gross rate of enrollment reach to 24%, almost 30 million registered students, the largest in the world The increase of the state investment on education was slow Billion

9 Scale of the universities Many new campus, new recruiting, and new facilities The average spending per student decreases dramatically, quality? About 300 billion bank loans, recent relief plan New campuses: profitable investment for the future New Campus of Jilin UNew Campus of Sun Yet-sen U

10 10 Merging of Universities Huge comprehensive universities ZJU: with Hangzhou U, Zhejiang medical U and Zhejiang agriculture U WHU: with Wuhan hydroelectricity U, Wuhan mapping U, Hubei medical U JLU: with Jilin U industry, Baiqiuen medical U, Changchun U geology, Changchun communication U Merged with medical universities PKU: with Beijing medical U FDU: with Shanghai medical U SJTU: with Shanghai second medical U Local universities Suzhou U: with Suzhou silkworm college, Silk technology college, Sushou medical college Ningbo U: Ningbo normal college, Zhejiang aquaculture college A powerful reaction to the former relocation of disciplines in 1952 Good for small specialized colleges, but destroying the diversity of Chinese higher education system

11 11 Distribution of the higher learning institutions in China Economically activity areas NBS Statistics, Higher Education Institutes=1079+1184 Total Students=29 million Total Students=29 million

12 12 The higher education in 2020 enrollment: 36 million the gross rate of enrollment: 40% The main target of next 10 years is to improve the quality of education 12

13 13 Issue: 211 and 985 projects 13

14 14 211 and 985 projects Promoting excellent universities Centennial anniversary of PKU, in May 4 1998 985 project Promoting few Chinese universities to top level Investment(billion): I: 14, II: 18.9, III: 30.5 (five years a term) 211 project Improving 100 good universities in China Investment(billion): I: 2.755, II: 6.0, III:10.0 Investment to PKU 985 (five year a term): I: 2.2 billion II: 2.2 billion III: 3.3 billion

15 15 Concentration of funding 985-III project: PKU and Tsinghua share: I: 25.7%; II: 19.1; III: 21.6% The other 7 universities in C9 share 27.5% in 985-III, but they should receive similar compensation from local government The rest 30 universities share 41.9% about 10% flexible C9 is informer association what include 9 top universities

16 16 Research activities at PKU Quality and quantity of research output have been improved over the decade First Author PubPublicationss s Ave IF (from the Office of Scientific Research, PKU)

17 17 Research activities in Chinese universities The scientific publications on international journals increase dramatically in the past decade for the major comprehensive universities in China The overall publications also increase for all universities

18 18 Citation of selected universities Í 18

19 19 The impact of the research is still low 19

20 20 Rankings The performance of Chinese universities in these rankings are improving continuously Better performance on comprehensive ranking PKU is around 14-50 in the past several years For research orientated ranking, Chinese universities are all far behind Shanghai Jiaotong: PKU 200-250; Tsinghua: 200-250 Australia Research council Chinese universities are all quit far away 219 PKU, 233 Tsinghua, 365 SJTU, 389 Fudan, 417 Zhongshan, 418 Zhejiang, 428 Nanjing

21 21 Issues Investment on R&D and education 21

22 22 R&D investiment in China Chinas R&D Investment increases continuously over 1995 to 2009 The GERD is only 1.7% in 2009, which is much lower than most of the developed countries expected GERD is about 2.5 in 2020 Billion

23 23 Research funding policies Fundament research NSFC and MOST NSFCs budget will be 10 billion next year National needs oriented MOST, local government, other ministries and industry 16 national key project, about tens of billions each 600 billion budget was approved within the stimulating package Technology transfer mainly by venture capitals, but government provides various financial and policy assistant NSFC 100 million

24 24 Large research facilities Synchrotron radiation Neutron sources Reactor at Beijing Spallation neutron source at Dongguan, Guangdong province Others Super magnetic field facilities Protein genomics wild species bank astronomical telescope

25 25 External funding (R&D) of Chinese universities External funding increases but the share decreases because of more R&D spending in industry Chinese universities focus mostly on applied research The fundamental research funding is only 22% Statistics from MoST 1997-2008

26 26 Research funding of universities External research funding of PKU 26 Million

27 Investment PKU The budget was about 4.6 billion in 2009 The external research grant was about 1.26 billion in 2009 Tsinghua The research grant was ~30 billion in 2009 Scientific Research Income University Income in 100 million Yuan Scientific Research Funding School enterprises Government Investment University Foundation Special Funding University Income PKU budget in 2009

28 28 Political willing More investment on education and R&D The education spending will be 4% of GDP by 2012 about 1600 billion The R&D spending will be 2.5% of GDP in 2020 about 720 billion Difficulties it is difficult to force the local government invest more on education rich and poor regions The state compensation per students Beijing: 24,380, Shanghai: 15,349, Guangdong: 10,622, Tianjing: 9,827, Zhejiang: 8,771, Sichuan: 4,000, Xijiang: 6,300, Ningxia:3,400, Shenzhen: 24,000

29 29 The research Culture Different meaning for kexue in Chinese context The culture influence on the funding distribution Big science versus interests oriented research

30 30 Issue: Frontier and interdisciplinary Relocation the strengthen of the universities 30

31 31 Strengthen and weakness

32 32 Strengthen of Chinese universities Comparison with US and EU Strengthen: physical sciences Weakness: life science and medical sciences Peking U Harvard U Cambridge U

33 33

34 34

35 35 Biomedical research at PKU Biomedical related Institutions Faculty of Sciences School of life sciences School of chemistry Department of psychology Faculty of medicine School of Basic Medical Sciences School of Pharmaceutical Sciences School of Public Health 8 affiliated hospitals 12 teaching hospitals Research institutions Institute for molecular medicine Center for system biology Institute for clinic medical research Center for bio-optical image Center for functional image Center for chemical genomics Center for neurosciences Center for stem cell research National protein genomic center National life science center............

36 36 future perspective 36

37 37 Future perspectives Overall R&D input be raised to over 2.5% of GDP in 2020; and overall education input should be 4% of GDP (about 36,000 billion 2009) Become an innovative country in 2020 the contribution rates of scientific advancement reach over 60% dependency on foreign technology decrease to below 30% number of annual authorization of invention patents and number of international citation of scientific thesis rank among top 5 in the world The top research universities would play a significant role in this process Do we need more research universities in China?

38 Research Universities in China


40 40 New Research Universities in developed regions Financial revenue (billion Yuan) Jiangsu: 315, Zhejiang: 214.2 Suzhou:74.5, Ningbo: 39.0, Shenzhen: 101.6 Financial compensation per college student (yuan) Beijing: 24,380, Shanghai: 15,349, Guangdong: 10,622, Tianjing: 9,827, Zhejiang: 8,771, Sichuan: 4,000, Xijiang: 6,300, Ningxia:3,400 Shenzhen: 24,000 Suzhou University founded in 1900

41 41 Research Universities South university for science and technology at Shenzhen city The city invested 10 billion for a new campus, and 1 billion per year for running 400 new recruiting faculty, 6000 undergraduates and 4000 post graduates Focussing on science, engineering and management, taking HKUST as a model According to State Strategic Plan, the education spending should be 4% of GDP The GDP of Shenzhen city is more than 1000 billion for Shenzhen, which means they have to spend at least 40 billion on education each year new campus of SUST

42 42 International collaboration There are many joint research collaborations in PKU: Joint PhD program with GIT Joint research institute with UCLA, UM Joint programs with more than 200 institutions

43 43 Joint education programs SHJT: Joint engineering college with UM XAJT: Joint university with Liverpool U Yale: Joint liberal arts college with NUS NYU discussion with Shanghai establishing a fully independent campus at Pudong, Shanghai

44 44 International Cooperation and Exchange Case Study: XJLU University International joint institution jointly formed by Xian Jiaotong U and Loverpool U mainly undergraduate very successful and well accepted by society and other academic institutions Vision: a research-led international university in China with its unique features in teaching & learning, research, social service, education management.

45 45 Thank you 45

46 46 Publications and citations continuously improving in the past decade but still for below the world average SCI Papers Citations

47 47 State key project key IT devices and software, IC: integrate circuit, new generation of broad band mobile communication system, drug discovery, aircraft, exploring new oil resource, petroleum, nuclear power plant, water pollution, biotech and gene related technology, infectious diseases, space flight, aerospace technology,

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