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Teaching and Learning Research Programme Andrew Pollard (TLRP) and Patti Barber (Primary PGCE) Institute of Education, University of London Pedagogic Principles.

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Presentation on theme: "Teaching and Learning Research Programme Andrew Pollard (TLRP) and Patti Barber (Primary PGCE) Institute of Education, University of London Pedagogic Principles."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teaching and Learning Research Programme Andrew Pollard (TLRP) and Patti Barber (Primary PGCE) Institute of Education, University of London Pedagogic Principles & Concepts in Teacher Education: exploring TLRP applications

2 Teaching and Learning Research Programme 1.A professional opportunity? 2.TLRPs outputs 3.Making sense through pedagogic principles –Case study: PGCE M level module 4.Making sense through conceptual tools –Case study: a Commentary on Pedagogy & Professionalism

3 Teaching and Learning Research Programme Mastery of the fundamental ideas of a field involves... discovery of previously unrecognized relations and similarities between ideas. The cultivation of a sense of interconnectedness is surely the heart of the matter. Jerome Bruner, 1966

4 Teaching and Learning Research Programme 1.A professional opportunity? 2.TLRPs outputs 3.Making sense through pedagogic principles –Case study: PGCE M level module 4.Making sense through conceptual tools –Case study: a Commentary on Pedagogy & Professionalism

5 Three broad conclusions emerge from research on student learning: 1.that most variation is attributable to differences in student abilities and attitudes, and family and community background. 2.that teacher quality is the single most important school variable influencing student achievement. 3.that vital teacher characteristics include: the ability to convey ideas in clear and convincing ways; to create effective learning environments for different types of students; to foster productive teacher-student relationships; to be enthusiastic and creative; and to work effectively with colleagues and parents. (OECD, 2005)

6 The quality of an education system cannot exceed the quality of its teachers. The only way to improve outcomes is to improve instruction. High performance requires every child to succeed. (McKinsey & Company, 2007)

7 1.A professional opportunity? 2.TLRPs outputs 3.Making sense through pedagogic principles –Case study: PGCE M level module 4.Making sense through conceptual tools –Case study: a Commentary on Pedagogy & Professionalism

8 Teaching and Learning Research Programme TLRP outputs A. Generating knowledge and understanding about teaching and learning B. Supporting the development of research expertise and capacity

9 Teaching and Learning Research Programme TLRP outputs A. Generating knowledge and understanding about teaching and learning

10 Teaching and Learning Research Programme www.tlrp.org Home page - news, features, search (five ways), site navigation

11 Teaching and Learning Research Programme Site suggestions for students

12 Teaching and Learning Research Programme Seventy research projects

13 Teaching and Learning Research Programme Research briefings

14 Teaching and Learning Research Programme Schools findings

15 Teaching and Learning Research Programme Practitioner activities

16 Teaching and Learning Research Programme User summaries

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19 Teaching and Learning Research Programme TLRP outputs for all B. Supporting the development of research expertise and capacity

20 Teaching and Learning Research Programme Knowledge accumulation though thematic analysis

21 Teaching and Learning Research Programme Meetings of Minds Fellowships

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23 Teaching and Learning Research Programme Research development resources

24 Teaching and Learning Research Programme Many authors Alan Brown, Warwick; David Bridges, Cambridge; Peter Bryant, Oxford; Anne Campbell, Leeds Met; Patrick Carmichael, Cambridge; Philippa Cordingley, CUREE; John Elliott, East Anglia; Morwenna Griffiths, Edinburgh; Stephen Gorard, Birmingham; Martyn Hammersley, Open; Higher Education Academy, York; Paul Lambe, Exeter; Neil Mercer, Cambridge; Jennifer Nias, Plymouth; Terezinha Nunes, Oxford; Carrie Paechter, Goldsmiths; Philosophical of Ed Society of GB; Lesley Saunders, GTC E; Pat Sikes, Sheffield; Paul Standish, Sheffield; Chris Taylor, Cardiff; Sally Thomas, Bristol; Andy Tolmie, IoE, London; David Watson, IoE, London; UCET Teacher Ed Ref Group; Anna Vignoles, IoE, London; Deborah Youdell, IoE, London

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26 Teaching and Learning Research Programme Anne Campbell on practitioner research

27 Teaching and Learning Research Programme Martyn Hammersley on paradigms

28 Teaching and Learning Research Programme

29 International links

30 Teaching and Learning Research Programme The work and resources of TLRP A. Generating knowledge and understanding about teaching and learning B. Supporting the development of research expertise and capacity

31 Teaching and Learning Research Programme Impact and significance

32 Teaching and Learning Research Programme

33 1.A professional opportunity? 2.TLRPs outputs 3.Making sense through pedagogic principles –Case study: PGCE M level module 4.Making sense through conceptual tools –Case study: a Commentary on Pedagogy & Professionalism

34 Teaching and Learning Research Programme Mastery of the fundamental ideas of a field involves... discovery of previously unrecognized relations and similarities between ideas. The cultivation of a sense of interconnectedness is surely the heart of the matter. Jerome Bruner, 1966

35 Teaching and Learning Research Programme affirms a holistic approach to teaching and learning or pedagogy represents cumulative evidence and experience supports contextualised judgement by teachers, tutors, practitioners and policy-makers Why evidence-informed principles?

36 Teaching and Learning Research Programme

37 1. EQUIPS LEARNERS FOR LIFE IN ITS BROADEST SENSE

38 2. ENGAGES WITH VALUED FORMS OF KNOWLEDGE 3. RECOGNISES THE IMPORTANCE OF PRIOR EXPERIENCE AND LEARNING

39 4. REQUIRES THE TEACHER TO SCAFFOLD LEARNING 5. NEEDS ASSESSMENT TO BE CONGRUENT WITH LEARNING

40 6. PROMOTES THE ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT OF THE LEARNER 7. FOSTERS BOTH INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIAL PROCESSES AS OUTCOMES 8. RECOGNISES THE SIGNIFICANCE OF INFORMAL LEARNING

41 9. DEPENDS ON TEACHER LEARNING 10. DEMANDS CONSISTENT POLICY FRAMEWORKS WITH SUPPORT FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING AS THEIR PRIMARY FOCUS

42 Teaching and Learning Research Programme Case Study: PGCE M Level development

43 Learning and Teaching in the Core subjects

44 The Structure of the Module 10 TLRP Principles principles 1, and 3 - three core subject sessions face-to-face with subject specific tutors principles 4, 5, 7 and 8- individual sessions integrating understanding across the core subjects Principles 2, 6, 9 and 10- self-study tasks

45 School based tasks and self study tasks - see Appendices A,B,C,D,E, F and G Principle 2: Engages with valued forms of knowledge Principle 4: requires the teacher to scaffold the learning Principle 5: Needs assessment to be congruent with learning Principle 6: Promotes the active engagement of the learner Principles 7 and 8: Fosters both individual and social processes and outcomes - and - recognises the significance of informal learning Principle 9:Depends on teacher learning Principle 10: Demands consistent policy frameworks with support for teaching and learning as their primary focus

46 Requires the teacher to scaffold learning Generic taught session 1 School based Task How do teachers use questions? From TLRP website http://www.tlrp.org/ Preparation In preparation for this session you should do the school based task and reading. Principle 4

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48 Principle 5 Needs assessment to be congruent with learning School based task To track and evaluate a sequence of lessons in each of the CORE subjects to see the progress made by different children. This would be done through the sessions that you teach on ATSE as explained in the school based tasks. Bring evidence of this to the session on January after school experience. Your examples should include: - Lesson Plans including learning intention /task /differentiation Observations of effectiveness of the lesson with regard to learning. Examples of assessment opportunities. * Evidence of learning by 3 different children. (*This should include photocopies of work, recorded observations of work, discussions involving the child(ren), questioning of children by teacher or yourself, notes on how children assessed the lesson.)

49 Principle 8 Recognises the significance of informal learning school- based task presented in generic session 3 Aim: To implement and evaluate activities which enable the use of informal learning in formal processes. Task- Boxing clever: using shoeboxes to support home–school knowledge exchange. 1.To Interview two teachers in your school re home-school exchange. Analyse their provision and perceptions. (is it effective? Is it one-way? Is home learning valued? How could it be developed? What might the practical difficulties of further development be? ) 2. To implement the Shoebox task as described in the Pamela Greenhough article with two children in your Spring School Experience class. 3. To write an evaluation of what this task offered you in terms of opportunities for: a. home- school knowledge exchange b. the possibilities for planning next steps in those childrens learning.

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51 Home-corner: photography studio Shoebox home-school learning project: Greenhough et al (2005)

52 How can early photographic representations be Research focus: understood, in relation to meaning making?

53 Evaluations of the course This module has really helped to ground my knowledge and understanding in teaching and learning practices. The principles are in my mind as I am teaching. I really enjoyed learning about the theories behind L and T and the TLRP principles which give a good basis to put them in practice and help you be an effective teacher. All of the L and T principles have highlighted what is expected of me when I begin to teach my own class. the principle of scaffolding learning and its theory is something I will take away and use throughout my teaching career.

54 Teaching and Learning Research Programme 1.A professional opportunity? 2.TLRPs outputs 3.Making sense through pedagogic principles –Case study: PGCE M level module 4.Making sense through conceptual tools –Case study: a Commentary on Pedagogy & Professionalism

55 Professionalism The essence of professionalism is the exercise of skills, knowledge and judgement for the public good. But teacher expertise is poorly understood in our society

56 Pedagogy is the practice of teaching framed and informed by a shared and structured body of knowledge and combined with moral purpose. By progressively acquiring such knowledge and mastering pedagogical expertise – through initial formation, continuing development and reflective experience – teachers are entitled to be treated as professionals. Teachers should scrutinise and evaluate their practice to make rationally defensible professional judgements beyond pragmatic constraints and/or ideological concerns.

57 What do we talk about? Curriculum Pedagogy Assessment So, what happens if we compare and contrast the concepts used to discuss curriculum, pedagogy and assessment?

58 Concepts in HMIs The Curriculum from 5 to 16 (1985) Breadth Balance Relevance Differentiation Progression Continuity

59 So, a key contention: Maybe …. that pedagogic concepts can be organised in terms of their function (the work that they do) and that, by making this logic explicit, we could create a more robust and sustainable conceptual framework for the professional expertise of teaching?

60 Concepts

61 Concepts are to do with: Aims Contexts Processes Outcomes

62 1. Societal aims To what vision of education does the provision aspire? 2. Elements of learning What knowledge, concepts, skills and values are to be learned in formal education? 3. Community context Is the educational experience valued and endorsed by civil society? 4. Institutional context Does the school promote a common vision to extend educational experiences and inspire learners? 5. Process for social needs Does the educational experience build on social relationships, cultural understandings and learner identities? 6. Process for emotional needs Does the educational experience take due account of learner views, feelings and characteristics? 7. Process for cognitive needs Does the educational experience match learners cognitive needs and provide appropriate challenge? 8. Developmental outcomes Does the educational experience lead to development in knowledge, concepts, skills and values? 9. Cumulative outcomes Does the educational experience equip learners for adult and working life and for an unknown future?

63 Teaching and Learning Research Programme Curricular concepts Pedagogic concepts Assessment concepts 1. Societys educational goalsBreadthPrincipleAlignment 2. Elements of learningBalanceRepertoireValidity 3. Community contextConnectionWarrantDependability 4. Institutional contextCoherenceCultureChallenge 5. Processes for learners social needs PersonalisationRelationshipsInclusion 6. Process for learners emotional needs RelevanceEngagementAuthenticity 7. Processes for learners cognitive needs DifferentiationDialogueFeed-back 8. Outcomes for continuous improvement in learning ProgressionReflectionDevelopment 9. Outcomes for certification and the lifecourse EffectivenessEmpowermentConsequence

64 Implications for professional practice

65 Towards: Strengthening the shared professional language for talking about teaching and learning developing communities of warranted practices which contribute to the development of this language Creating public representations of teacher expertise

66 Teaching and Learning Research Programme For more information: www.tlrp.org –Commentaries –Teachers Guide to Ten Principles –Resources for practitioner research www.rtweb.info –Practitioner applications for classroom enquiry –Notes to guide reading

67 1.A professional opportunity? 2.TLRPs outputs 3.Making sense through pedagogic principles –Case study: PGCE M level module 4.Making sense through conceptual tools –Case study: a Commentary on Pedagogy & Professionalism

68 Mastery of the fundamental ideas of a field involves... discovery of previously unrecognized relations and similarities between ideas. The cultivation of a sense of interconnectedness is surely the heart of the matter. Jerome Bruner, 1966


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