The Rose Review and its research base Morag Stuart
Aspect 1 of the remit: What best practice should be expected in the teaching of early reading and synthetic phonics?
Report draws on: Research on the teaching of reading Written evidence and oral accounts of effective practice Papers submitted by respondents to the Education and Skills Committee report HMI survey Ofsted reports and data Visits by the review team Early findings from the PNS Early Reading Development Pilot Responses to the Review
Four recommendations re Aspect 1 1.The forthcoming EYFS and the renewed Primary National Strategy Framework for teaching literacy should provide, as a priority, clear guidance on developing childrens speaking and listening skills 2.High quality, systematic phonics work as defined by the review should be taught discretely. The knowledge, skills and understanding that constitute high quality phonic work should be taught as the prime approach in learning to decode (to read) and encode (to write/spell) print.
3.Phonic work should be set within a broad and rich language curriculum that takes full account of developing the four interdependent strands of language: speaking, listening, reading and writing and enlarging childrens stock of words. 4.The Primary National Strategy should continue to exemplify quality first teaching, showing how robust assessment of childrens learning secures progression in phonic work and how literacy is developed across the curriculum from the Foundation Stage onwards. Four recommendations re Aspect 1
Two controversial issues: 1.The recommendation (in the annex to the review) that reliance on the Searchlights model of reading should give way to the principles embodied in the Simple View of reading. 2.The recommendation that systematic phonics teaching should conform to the major principles implemented in what has become known as synthetic phonics
word recognition language comprehension goodgood poorpoor goodpoor by the time children come to school they can produce and understand language we need only teach children to decipher the words on the page they will automatically understand what they read The Simple View of Reading
word recognition language comprehension goodgood poorpoor goodpoor We must first only teach children to recognise words. Once they are fluent word readers we can encourage them to understand what they read The Simple View of Reading
We must first only teach children to recognise words. Once they are fluent word readers we can encourage them to understand what they read word recognitionlanguage comprehension goodpoor good The Simple View of Reading
word recognition language comprehension goodgood poorpoor goodpoor The Simple View of Reading Good language comprehension, poor word recognition Good word recognition, good language comprehension Poor word recognition, poor language comprehension Good word recognition, poor language comprehension
Four predictions from the Simple View: 1 Different skills and knowledge will contribute to performance in each dimension Oakhill, Cain & Bryant (2003) Muter, Hulme, Snowling & Stevenson (2004)
Four predictions from the Simple View: 2 Factor analysis of data sets on different measures of reading will reveal more than one underlying factor. Pazzaglia, Cornoldi and Tressoldi (1993) Cornoldi & Fattori, 1979 Nation and Snowling (1997
Dissociations in performance across the two dimensions Good word recognition / impaired comprehension Grigorenko, Klin & Volmar, 2003 (review); Bishop & Adams, 1990; Snowling & Frith, 1986; Pennington, Johnson & Welch, 1987; Jackson, Donaldson & Cleland, 1988; Stothard & Hulme, 1992. Good language comprehension / impaired word recognition Spooner, Baddeley & Gathercole (2004) Catts, Adlof & Weismer (2006) Four predictions from the Simple View: 3
Different use of context by skilled and less skilled readers L ess skilled readers rely more on context to aid word recognition Briggs & Underwood, 1986; Nation & Snowling, 1998; Perfetti, 1985; Pring & Snowling, 1986; Schwantes, 1985, 1991; Stanovich, West & Feeman, 1981 Skilled readers use context to aid comprehension Baker & Brown, 1984; Nation & Snowling, 1998; Stanovich & Cunningham, 1991 Four predictions from the Simple View: 4
The Simple View is only the beginning Need to understand the complex processes involved in skilled word recognition and its development if we are going to enable children to read the words on the page Need to understand the even more complex processes involved in language comprehension and how language comprehension can be developed in children if we are going to enable children to understand what they read.
Situating phonics within the Simple View Phonic knowledge is essential to developing word recognition skills Phonics teaching therefore is concerned with the word recognition dimension of reading What do we know about skilled word recognition – about the processes involved in reading and understanding the words on the page? What do we know about how these processes develop? What is the role of phonic knowledge (and hence, phonics teaching) in their development?
Skilled word recognition: two major processing models The dual route cascade model The triangle model Two sets of processes involved Phonological recoding processes Orthographic- semantic processes
orthographic store semantic store phonological store semantic store Dual route cascade and triangle models printed word letter identification phoneme units spoken word orthographic store phonological store printed word spoken word grapheme-phoneme conversion system
Developing word recognition skills Predictors of success Phonological awareness - especially phoneme awareness Letter knowledge - both letter name and letter sound knowledge Understanding the alphabetic principle Training studies Training in phoneme awareness plus letter-sounds results in better word reading skills Bradley & Bryant (1983); Blachman, Ball, Black & Tangel (1994); Byrne & Fielding-Barnsley (1991, 1993, 1995); Cunningham (1990); Hatcher, Hulme & Ellis (1994); McGuiness, McGuiness & Donohue (1995)
Knowledge and application of phonic rules facilitates development of phonological recoding processes : printed word letter identification phoneme units spoken word orthographic store phonological store printed word spoken word grapheme-phoneme conversion system
Knowledge and application of phonic rules also facilitates development of orthographic/semantic processes printed word letter identification phoneme units spoken word orthographic store semantic store phonological store orthographic store phonological store printed word spoken word semantic store WHY?
Knowledge and application of phonic rules also facilitates development of orthographic/semantic processes WHY? Two views: Share self-teaching hypothesis Ehri partial alphabetic phase
Self-teaching hypothesis If children can apply their phonic knowledge to read unfamiliar words, they will build a store of spelling patterns of familiar words linked to their meanings more quickly, because left-to-right decoding of each grapheme forces attention sequentially on to each letter of the unfamiliar word, increasing likelihood that child will remember it accurately. Evidence consistent with this hypothesis: Bowey & Miller (2007) Bowey & Muller (2005) Cunningham, Perry, Stanovich & Share (2002) Kyte & Johnson (2006) Nation, Angell & Castles (2007) Share (1999)
Partial alphabetic phase rain r n orthography phonology /reI n//reI n/ drops of water falling from the sky
Evidence consistent with Ehris hypothesis Storage of boundary letters: Dixon, Stuart, & Masterson (2002) Savage, Stuart, & Hill (2001) Stuart. & Coltheart, (1988). National Reading Panel findings: Systematic phonics programs significantly more effective than non- systematic or no phonics programs Systematic phonics programs significantly more effective when given in kindergarten or first grade Systematic phonics programs led to better reading comprehension in younger children
Does systematic entail synthetic? NRP report distinguished synthetic, large unit and miscellaneous systematic phonics programs. Synthetic = as defined in Rose Review mean effect size d =.45 Large unit = onset-rime, phonograms, spelling patterns mean effect size d =.34 Miscellaneous = programs that did not fit either of above categories mean effect size d =.27 No significant difference in mean effect size of different types of program
Rose Review, p.15, para 31. Research, inspection and leading edge work of settings and schools may inform best practice. However, findings from different research programmes are sometimes contradictory or inconclusive, and often call for further studies to test tentative findings. While robust research findings must not be ignored, developers of national strategies, much less schools and settings, cannot always wait for the results of long-term research studies. They must take decisions, based on as much firm evidence as is available from a range of sources at the time, especially from replicable and sustainable best practice
What is analytic phonics? As defined by Johnston & Watson: Analytic phonics teaching starts at the whole word level. Typically, children are taught one letter sound per week, and are shown a series of alliterative pictures and words which start with that sound e.g. car, cat, candle, cake, castle, caterpillar. When the 26 initial letter sounds have been taught in this way, children are introduced to middle sounds e.g. cat, bag, rag etc., and final sounds, e.g. nap, cup, pip etc. But: Also frequently understood as, or confused with, large unit (onset-rime, analogy) phonics And: Much of the opposition to the Rose Review recommendation that systematic phonics teaching should adopt the principles and practices of synthetic phonics comes from advocates of large-unit, onset-rime phonics
Why onset-rime phonics? Claim that English is more consistent at the onset-rime than the grapheme-phoneme level Consistency leads to swifter mastery of word reading skills
Why onset-rime phonics? The argument that onset-rime phonics teaching should lead to faster acquisition of word reading skills depends crucially on the following issues: That English is indeed impossibly inconsistent at the level of GPCs That there is indeed increased consistency of pronunciation in rime units than in GPCs That children have sufficient repeated experience of rime units to notice and use this increased consistency
GPC consistency in English Following an analysis of all the English monosyllables in the MRC database, Coltheart estimates that over 75% of these can be correctly decoded by application of GPC rules – i.e. English monosyllables are not particularly inconsistent. But, how many GPC rules are needed to decode English words?
GPC rules in English Gontijo et al, (2003) Analysed word tokens in Celex database. Identified195 unique graphemes in English. 461 GPC rules allow correct pronunciation of all words in the database. 103 of these 195 graphemes have a single pronunciation: i.e. 53% of English graphemes are always pronounced in the same way. A further 64 of the 195 (33%) have one pronunciation that is overwhelmingly more frequent than any of the alternatives. There are 28 graphemes for which this is not the case. That is, most of the irregularity in English is carried by 28 of the 195 graphemes (14%).
Rime consistency in English Treiman, Mullenix, Bijeljac-Babic & Richmond-Welty (1995): More consistency in English orthography if words are analysed into onsets and rimes. Final consonant of rime helps to determine vowel pronunciation. Claim is based in analysis of only 1329 monosyllabic CVC words in the Merriam-Webster Pocket Dictionary (a US dictionary for adults). Ziegler & Goswami (2006): 3000 most frequent monosyllables in English contain 600 different rime patterns. Vousden (in press): 7,197 monosyllables from CELEX database 16% = onsets inconsistent 18% rimes inconsistent
Stuart, Masterson, Dixon & Gray (2003). Database of vocabulary in books read by children in KS1 Monosyllables in 300 most frequent words contained 89 different rimes 54 (61%) appeared once only 26 (29%) appeared twice only 9 (10%) appeared from 3-5 times Replicated this in in extended version of database Interactive and available on http://www.essex.ac.uk/psychology/cpwd Productivity of rime units
Vousden (in press) Knowledge of 100 most frequent multisyllabic words 56.7% of text is readable. Knowledge of even a large number of rime mappings alone will only allow about 3% of all text to be read i.e. need to learn onsets too, which are GPCs 312 GPCs recorded in 7195 monosyllables in CELEX database; 72 (23%) graphemes were inconsistent. Knowledge of 50 GPCs allows 47.7% of monosyllables to be read. Concludes: as vocabulary increases more text can be read by GPC mappings than by either whole word or onset and rime mappings Relative productivity of words, rime units and GPCs
Research base of the Rose Review Recommendation for systematic teaching of GPCs based in: Research evidence that such teaching is at least as effective as any other method of systematic phonics teaching Mean effect sizes in NRP report: synthetic phonics d = 0.45 large unit phonics d = 0.34
Research base of the Rose Review Recommendation for systematic teaching of GPCs based in: Observations of current successful phonics teaching in UK schools systematic teaching of GPC rules, and phoneme segmentation and blending teachers understood systematic phonics teaching as systematic teaching of GPC rules, and phoneme segmentation and blending
Systematic teaching at GPC level Directly provides children with knowledge and skills known to be used by skilled readers GPCs Phoneme blending skills Develops phoneme awareness in children provides physical representation for the abstraction that is the phoneme Phoneme awareness is the best and longest lasting predictor of word reading skill
Areas of clear agreement between Rose Review and NRP report: Developing word recognition skills is a time-limited task that depends on phonic knowledge and skill from the start Available evidence suggests that systematic phonics instruction should extend from kindergarten to 2 nd grade (2-137) GPCs should be taught systematically It is clear that the major letter-sound correspondences, including short and long vowels and digraphs, need to be taught (2-136)
Areas of clear agreement between Rose Review and NRP report: Need for teacher education: Practitioners and teachers need to be brought up-to-date with research into the development of word recognition skills (38-125) and with research into reading comprehension (39-126) Teachers must themselves be educated about how to evaluate different programs and to determine which are based on strong evidence and how they can most effectively use these programs in their own classrooms (2- 136)
Areas of clear agreement between Rose Review and NRP report: Need for rich experience of language: The findings of this review argue strongly for the inclusion of a vigorous programme of phonic work to be securely embedded within a broad and rich language curriculum (16-35) …phonics instruction is never a total reading program. In 1 st grade, teachers can provide controlled vocabulary texts that allow students to practice decoding, and they can also read quality literature to students to build a sense of story and develop vocabulary and comprehension (2-136)