Presentation on theme: "Ramya Vivekanandan UNESCO Teacher Training Initiative for"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ramya Vivekanandan UNESCO Teacher Training Initiative for Sub-Saharan Africa (TTISSA)Ramya VivekanandanUniversities Council for the Educationof Teachers (UCET) Seminar,1 October 2008
2 UNESCO – Its Mandate in Education A laboratory of ideasanticipates and responds to emerging trends and needs in education and develops education policy recommendations based on research evidenceA clearing housepromotes development and implementation of successful education practice, and documents and disseminates successful practicesA standard-setterdevelops standards, norms and guidelines for key education areas and actionsA capacity-builder in Member Statesprovides a platform for intellectual thought leadership for education innovation and reformA catalyst for international cooperationinitiates and promotes dialogue and exchange of information among education leaders and stakeholders, e.g. Global Action Plan for EFA
3 Teachers as catalysts for change “Teachers are essential players in promoting quality education, whether in schools or in more flexible community-based programmes; they are advocates for, and catalysts of, change. No education reform is likely to succeed without the active participation and ownership of teachers.” - Dakar Framework for Action,
4 Section for Teacher Education Promotes the ILO/UNESCO Recommendations concerning the Status of Teachers and other international norms/standards regarding teachersRaises public awareness of the fundamental contribution teachers make to development and civil society, including through the annual international observance of World Teachers’ Day (5 October)Assists Member States to establish and/or strengthen national policies regarding the education, recruitment, retention, status and working conditions of teachersFacilitates the exchange of knowledge, good practices and lessons learned regarding teacher issuesPromotes awareness among decision-making groups to provide for the status of teachers as a fundamental policy issue nationally and internationally (G-8; donor organizations, national ministries).
5 The Recommendations concerning the Status of Teaching Personnel 1966 ILO/UNESCO Recommendation concerningthe Status of Teaching Personnel1997 UNESCO Recommendation concerning theStatus of Higher-Education Teaching Personnel
6 The scope of the Recommendations Initial and continuing trainingRecruitmentAdvancement and promotionSecurity of tenureDisciplinary proceduresPart time serviceProfessional freedomSupervision and assessmentResponsibilities and rightsParticipation in educational decision makingNegotiationConditions for effective teaching and learningSocial security
7 Monitoring of the Recommendations The Committee of Experts on the Application of theRecommendations concerning Teachers (CEART)Triennial MeetingsReportWorking Group onAllegationsFollow up of CEARTRecommendations
8 The challenge…The challenge:The acute shortage of qualified teachers has been identified as one of the biggest challenges to the realisation of the EFA goals by 2015.Up to 4 million additional teachers needed for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) if UPE is to be achieved.
9 And the complexities of the challenge… Concerns about the attractiveness of teaching as a career make recruitment a major issue, with the relative social value of the profession in long-term decliBenchmark indicators (e.g. 3.5% advocated by FTI) for teachers salaries, do not reflect PPP and context of country and impact on attractiveness of teaching as a careerEven in countries with an adequate supply of teachers, there are often shortages in remote areas and in certain subject areas (e.g. science, maths)Globalization has led to an unprecedented level of migration of teachers (at all levels) to other professions and countries (a “brain drain” effect)Some countries experience high rates of teacher attrition, especially among new teachers (teachers use qualification to gain other employment).High human resource costs related to sick teachers and HIV-related absencesInability of current teacher education models to cope with the demand for increased numbersDisjuncture between teacher training and the realities of school and insufficient evaluation of teacher training and its impact on classroom practice.Teacher educators inadequately trained and supportedCertain cadres (higher education teachers, technical and vocational teachers) may have no pedagogical trainingAbsence of coherent policies and coordination of in-service trainingThe recruitment of unqualified or under-qualified teachers, initially adopted as a temporary/emergency measure, is now a more persistent and widespread practice
10 TTISSA TTISSA: Teacher Training Initiative for Sub-Saharan Africa One of UNESCO’s 3 high-level initiatives in education(others are EDUCAIDS and LIFE)17 “first phase” countries: Angola, Burkina Faso,Burundi, Cape Verde, Central African Republic,Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo,Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Madagascar, Niger,Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania and Zambia…but will eventually be “rolled out” to all 46 SSAcountriesImplemented by UNESCO HQ (Section for TeacherEducation) in close cooperation with UNESCO’sRegional Bureau for Education in Africa (Dakar) andthe UNESCO International Institute for CapacityBuilding in Africa (Addis Ababa) along with UNESCOField Offices
11 TTISSA Log FrameGOALTo improve access, quality and equity of education towards the achievement of EFAPURPOSETo increase the quantity and improve the quality of the teacher workforce in SSAOUTPUTS1. Status and working conditions of teachers improved2. Coherent teacher management and administrative structures established3. Appropriate teacher policies developed4. Quality and coherence of teacher professional development enhanced
13 Priority ActivitiesRaising the debate – internal and external advocacy, promotion of the RecommendationsResearching the issues – PASEC, SACMEQ, GMRImproving teacher data - UISTeacher Education Policies – gathering data, Policy Forums, Policy Briefs, IIEP distance education courseICTs – Competency Standards, Open Resources in Ghana, Kenya and DRC, DETA conferenceQuality Assurance – Global Forum & and International ConferenceProvision and facilitation of specific technical support as requiredSourcing of extra-budgetary resources
14 Focus on TTISSA Support to Teacher Policy Gathering of teacher policies from various SSA countries (e.g Angola, Cape Verde, Congo, DRC, Guinea, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Zambia) and review/ analysis of those policiesTeacher Education Policy Forum for Sub-Saharan Africa held at UNESCO HQ on 6-9 November 2007 with Directors of Teacher Education from first-phase TTISSA countriesPolicy briefs being developed on various areas (e.g costing, data, emerging issues, quality assurance)Second Policy Forum to be held, hosted by Ministry of Education of first-phase TTISSA countyProvision of technical assistance to countries on policy development (e.g. Angola, Niger, DRC)
15 Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2004 TTISSA in AngolaPopulationGross enrollment rate(primary)Pupil-teacherratioPercentage of trained teachersPercentage of femaleteachers15.5 million74.5 (2002)31.9n/a41.9Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2004Large, resource-rich country marked by a brutal 27-year civil war, which ended in Economy now one of the fastest growing in the world.Large-scale reconstruction of the education system, including school construction and recruitment of teachers. As a result, the number of children enrolling in primary school doubled between 2002 and 2003Government recruited 29,150 teachers for the 2003 school year, of which 70% had no academic or pedagogical teaching qualification. Many different categories of teachers in the system, most with no or little training.MoE identified need for a National Qualifications Framework for Teachers for an accurate picture of the various types of teachers in the system and develop a plan for upgrading those who never received training. This is a priority in other SADC countries as well.Huge challenge in terms of information. Very little data available on the education system and on teachers in particular
16 TTISSA’s Support to Angola Through the EFA Capacity Building Programme….Development of a National Qualifications Framework for Teachers (NQFT)Production of ODL modules for teacher education curriculum in Portuguese, math and computer literacyMainstreaming of cross-cutting themes (e.g HIV and AIDS, peace and human rights, culture, world heritage) into the teacher education curriculumStrengthening of two Community Learning Resource Centres (CLRCs) and establishment of a third one