Presentation on theme: "The Triple Bottom Line: Towards Sustainable CPD Professor Tony Townsend Chair of Public Service, Educational Leadership and Management School of Education,"— Presentation transcript:
The Triple Bottom Line: Towards Sustainable CPD Professor Tony Townsend Chair of Public Service, Educational Leadership and Management School of Education, University of Glasgow IPDA Conference Birmingham, UK, November 26, 2010
Perception Our view of the world is a product of what we are looking at, where we are standing when we are looking at it and how we feel about ourselves and the thing we are looking at.
FABULOUS FILES ARE FREQUENTLY THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY FOLLOWED BY THE KEEPING OF FULL FINDINGS.
FABULOUS FILES ARE FREQUENTLY THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY FOLLOWED BY THE KEEPING OF FULL FINDINGS.
Perception Our view of the world is a product of what we are looking at, where we are standing when we are looking at it and how we feel about ourselves and the thing we are looking at. We can, however, change peoples perceptions of the world by providing them with new information, by educating them.
Every few hundred years in western history there occurs a sharp transformation. We cross... a divide. Within a few short decades society rearranges itself, its world view; its basic values; its social and political structure; its arts; its key institutions. Fifty years later, there appears a new world...we are currently living through such a transformation. Drucker, 1993: p 1
THE PACE AND FLOW OF CHANGE
Toffler, 1971: 12 I coined the term future shock to describe the shattering stress and disorientation that we induce in individuals by subjecting them to too much change in too short a time.
Peter Drucker People born in the 1980s and 1990s cannot even imagine the world into which their parents were born.
How quickly things change How many things as you can think of in the next minute that a 15 year old can do or experience today that you could not do or experience when you were 15.
Make a list Categories of change Technology
Thomas Watson, Chairman, IBM, 1943 I think there is a world market for maybe 5 computers
Popular Mechanics, 1954
Make a list Categories of change Technology Environment Health Wealth Employment Society/Population Culture Relationships Values
Are we changing our values?
Thinking and Acting Individually Thinking and Acting Locally Thinking Nationally and Acting Locally Thinking Globally and Acting Locally Thinking and Acting Globally and Locally 2000 BC- 1890s 1870s-1990s 1970s-2000s 1980s-2010
The Big Picture Items: The Factors that Impact on PD today We are working in a time of Globalisation and Change, where increased Accountability Measures have changed the relationships between the people involved in schools and where changes in Funding levels have created a climate where people are expected to do more with less. Part of the more is not only doing something, but explaining why and how we did it and what the outcomes were, and part of the less is less people, less support and less materials to something with in the first place.
Continuing professional development (CPD) consists of reflective activity designed to improve an individuals attributes, knowledge, understanding and skills. It supports individual needs and improves professional practice.
Bubb and Earley, 2007, p.4 staff development is…an on-going process encompassing all formal and informal learning experiences that enable all staff in schools, individually and with others, to think about what they are doing, enhance their knowledge and skills and improve ways of working so that pupil learning and well-being are enhanced as a result. It should achieve a balance between individual, group, school and national needs; encourage a commitment to professional and personal growth; and increase resilience, self-confidence, job satisfaction and enthusiasm for working with children and colleagues
Storey et al., 2008, p32 work with other colleagues improve their professional abilities address immediate school needs gain more information have a positive impact on pupil learning improve academic achievement follow-up previous development activities address immediate classroom needs gain a better understanding of national curriculum requirements. Why do teachers undertake staff development?
Bubb and Earley (forthcoming) Evaluating the difference that staff development makes is important but is often thought of as a complex process. Exposure to, and participation in, staff development activities may or may not bring about change to individual staffs beliefs, values, attitudes and behaviours. These changes to individuals may or may not lead to changes in the classroom and school practice. And these changes may or may not lead to improvement in pupil outcomes.
Bubb and Earley (forthcoming) Staff development itself is not one activity or set of activities. It is not definable as a course, a series of courses, a programme of training or study or even a set of learning experiences. Rather, staff development is the upshot or outcome that may result from any or all of these activities and from the individuals reflection on day-to-day experience of doing the job.
The good stuff that I am not looking at… Bolam (2000) Bubb, S. and Earley, P. (2007, 2008) Earley, P. and Porritt, V. (2009) Fullan (1995) Guskey, T. (2000, 2002) Joyce B. R. and Showers B. (2002) Richardson (2003) Robinson, M. et al (2008) Storey, A. et al (2008)
Sustainable Professional Development How many times do we hear people say about a professional development experience that was interesting but it doesnt change their thinking or their practice? How many times do one or two teachers go to an activity that does change their thinking and would change their practice, but they cant convince anyone else in the school to support them? How many times do schools focus on something for a few years, have all sorts of CPD to support it and then change to a new fad that seems to be more popular?
Brundtland Commission Report 1987 Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
The Triple Bottom Line (Elkington, 1994)
Schools of Today Ask ourselves the questions: Are schools equitable for all students? Are schools bearable for all students? Are all schools viable in the current climate? If no to any of these, then what we have at the moment is not sustainable. If the professional development of teachers has a role in making schools more equitable, more bearable and more viable, then what might that role be?
Sustainable PD the Natural Environment we work in Globalisation and Change The Economic Environment we work in Lower funding levels The Social Environment we work in Accountability Measures
Hargreaves and Fink (2003) Sustainable leadership creates and preserves sustaining learning Sustainable leadership secures success over time Sustainable leadership sustains the leadership of others Sustainable leadership addresses issues of social change Sustainable leadership develops rather than depletes human and material resources Sustainable leadership develops environmental diversity and capacity Sustainable leadership undertakes activist engagement with the environment. Sustainable professional development creates and sustains learning Sustainable professional development promotes success Sustainable professional development develops leadership Sustainable professional development addresses change Sustainable professional development develops human and material resources Sustainable professional development develops diversity and capacity Sustainable professional development actively engages with the learning environment
Hargreaves & Fink, 2003 Sustainable leadership matters, spreads, and lasts. It is a shared responsibility that does not unduly deplete human or financial resources and cares for and avoids exerting damage on the surrounding educational and community environment. Sustainable professional development matters, spreads, and lasts. It is a shared responsibility that does not unduly deplete human or financial resources and cares for and avoids exerting damage on the surrounding educational and community environment.
Seven Principles of Sustainable Leadership 1. Depth 2. Endurance 3. Breadth 4. Justice 5. Diversity 6. Resourcefulness 7. Conservation It matters. It lasts. It spreads. It does not harm the surrounding environment. It promotes diversity and cohesion. It conserves expenditure. It honours the past by creating the future.
Seven Principles of Sustainable Professional Development 1.Depth It matters Questions to consider: What changes in teacher knowledge and behaviour will occur by undertaking this activity? How will these changes improve student learning? How will this change the way in which teachers work together? How will we know that improvement has occurred?
2. Endurance It lasts Seven Principles of Sustainable Professional Development Questions to consider: What follow up activity can be undertaken to demonstrate continued learning at a later time? What other knowledge or skill can be built on this foundation?
3. Breadth It spreads Seven Principles of Sustainable Professional Development Questions to consider: What is the best way that people who undertake this activity can transfer this information to other colleagues? What are a range of activities that might be used to further develop teacher understanding and skill in this area? How can this activity be used to promote teacher collegiality and teamwork?
4. Justice It does not harm the surrounding environment Seven Principles of Sustainable Professional Development Questions to consider: What changes in the school will happen after people undertake this activity? How does this activity promote the involvement of parents or the community? What will teachers learn in this activity that will encourage them to actively involve their students?
5. Diversity It promotes diversity and cohesion Seven Principles of Sustainable Professional Development Questions to consider: How can the knowledge learned from this activity be used in diverse communities? How does this activity promote cultural understanding and tolerance? How can this activity be used by teachers working in challenging schools or with challenging students?
6. Resourcefulness It conserves expenditure Seven Principles of Sustainable Professional Development Questions to consider: How can this activity be delivered in the most cost-effective way so that the whole school benefits? What are ways in which further support and learning can follow from this activity?
7. Conservation It honours the past by creating the future. Seven Principles of Sustainable Professional Development Questions to consider: Does this activity build on professional activity previously undertaken? Does this activity link to teachers daily work lives? Is the activity presented in a way that respects teachers as continuous learners?
Capacity building is concerned with creating the conditions, opportunities and experiences for collaboration and mutual learning Harris (2001) Capacity
Competence and Capability Competent teachers can be trained in specific tasks and understandings and can be tested by their level of memorisation of this information. Individual competencies are things that were learned in the past but can be tested in the present. They give no consideration for how the future might change what we need to know or do. Capable teachers need to be educated to be able to work in an unknown future. They need adaptability, leadership and decision-making skills. Capabilities are the attitudes and skills that we have today that will help us to succeed in the future.
Capability Learning Model (Cairns and Stephenson) Three intertwined elements: Ability (describes both competence and capacity) Values (the ideals that govern the use of ability) Self-efficacy (the way people judge their capability to carry out actions effectively)
Issues for Teacher Capability Ability (improved by structured professional activity) Values (improved by establishing a common code of values - professionalism) Self-efficacy (improved by providing teachers with professional support)
Questions for Professional Development What capabilities are being improved by the programme being offered? What are the underlying values being promoted by the PD programme? How will this programme (and any follow up) improve the participants perception of themselves as a teacher?
The really BIG question Where is the ONE PLACE in schools that learning happens? Not one of the places, or even the most important place, but the one place?
Three components of Professional Development The content of the programme: does the PD focus on learning specific information or is it looking at changing the conceptual understanding of the learners? The method of presentation: does the PD consist mostly of the presenter telling the learners what they need to know or are there opportunities for questions and discussions? The ambiance of the presentation: Is the learning being managed by the presenter or does the presenter support the learner to learn?
The RelationaLearning Model (Otero and Sparks, 2000) Isolated Learners Engaged Learners Interactive/Introspective Learners Global Self-regulated Learners RECOGNISING Awareness Facts for Forgetting UNDERSTANDING Adaptability Concepts for Analyzing VALUING Interaction Ethics for Discussion RELATING Interdependence Options for Positive Action
Clinch 2001 There are two types of teachers, the tellers and the askers. presenters
Nutrients for a hospitable learning culture being valued being encouraged being noticed being trusted being listened to being respected Southworth, 2000
Toxins for a hospitable learning culture ideas rejected or stolen constant carping criticisms being ignored being judged being overdirected not being listened to being misunderstood Southworth, 2000
FOCUS ON FACTS/ TASKS PRESENTER SUPPORTING/ INVOLVING PRESENTER MANAGING/ EXCLUDING A B C D E FH Presenter Behaviours and Learner Responses PRESENTER TELLING PRESENTER ASKING FOCUS ON CONCEPTS/ PROCESSES G How much time do you spend in each quadrant?
Presenter Behaviours and Learner Responses ManagementPresenter approachContent FocusLearner Response APresenter askingPresenter supportingFocus on concepts/processes Understanding BPresenter askingPresenter supportingFocus on facts/tasksKnowledge CPresenter askingPresenter managingFocus on concepts/processes Self-doubt DPresenter askingPresenter managingFocus on facts/tasksGuilt EPresenter tellingPresenter supportingFocus on concepts/processes Self-belief FPresenter tellingPresenter supportingFocus on facts/tasksClarity GPresenter tellingPresenter managingFocus on concepts/processes Unquestioned belief HPresenter tellingPresenter managingFocus on facts/tasksMemorization
FOCUS ON FACTS/ TASKS PRESENTER SUPPORTING/ INVOLVING PRESENTER MANAGING/ EXCLUDING A B C D E FH Presenter Behaviours and Learner Responses PRESENTER TELLING PRESENTER ASKING FOCUS ON CONCEPTS/ PROCESSES G DEFIANT COMPLIANCE COOPERATIVE LEARNING
If you would like more details contact Tony Townsend: School of Education University of Glasgow Phone: +44(0) Fax:+44(0)