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Exotic bulk viscosity and its influence on neutron star r-modes Debades Bandyopadhyay Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, India Collaborator: Debarati Chatterjee

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Outline of talk Exotic matter in neutron star interior Rapidly rotating neutron stars and r-mode instability Effect of hyperon-hyperon interaction on bulk viscosity and r-mode stability Outlook

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Structure of a neutron star Atmosphere (atoms) n 10 4 g/cm 3 Outer crust ( free electrons, lattice of nuclei ) 10 4 - 4 x 10 11 g/cm 3 Inner crust ( lattice of nuclei with free electrons and neutrons) Outer core (atomic particle fluid) Inner core ( exotic subatomic particles? ) n 10 14 g/cm 3

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Possible interior neutron star phases Hyperons Bose-Einstein condensates of pions and kaons Quarks

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Hyperons Hyperons produced at the cost of nucleons n + p p + + K 0, n + n n + - + K + Chemical equilibrium through weak processes p + e - + e, + e - - + e General condition for -equilibrium i = b i n - q i e

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r-mode instability A non-axisymmetric instability driven by gravitational radiation Rotation provides the restoring force ( Coriolis ) R-mode instability is responsible for slowing down a rapidly rotating, newly born neutron star r-modes are unstable to CFS (Chandrasekhar 1970, Friedman and Schutz 1978 ) instability

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Gravitational Radiation Reaction driven instability For slowly rotating stars,GR removes positive angular momentum from forward moving mode, and negative angular momentum from backward mode GR damps the perturbation For a star with large, a mode that moves backward relative to the star appears as a forward moving mode relative to the inertial observer (CFS instability ) GR removes positive angular momentum from a mode whose angular momentum is negative ( moves backward relative to the fluid ) By making angular momentum of the perturbation increasingly negative, GR drives the mode

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Growth vs Damping Bulk viscosity: arises because the pressure and density variations associated with the mode oscillation drive the fluid away from chemical equilibrium. It estimates the energy dissipated from the fluid motion as weak interaction tries to re- establish equilibrium Viscosity tends to counteract the growth of the GW instability Viscosity would stabilize any mode whose growth time is longer than the viscous damping time There must exist a critical angular velocity c above which the perturbation will grow, and below which it will be damped by viscosity If > c, the rate of radiation of angular momentum in gravity waves will rapidly slow the star, till it reaches c and can rotate stably

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Hadronic Phase

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Parameters of the theory The nucleon-meson couplings are determined using the following properties of symmetric nuclear matter : Binding energy B/A= -16.3 MeV Isospin asymmetry energy coefficient, a sym = 32.5 MeV. Saturation density n 0 = 0.16 fm -3 Compressibility K = 240 MeV Effective nucleon mass m*/m = 0.78 Compressibility: K = 9 dp dn Isospin asymmetry energy coefficient : a sym = 1 [ 2 ( /n) ] 2 t 2 t=0 where t = ( n n –n p ) / n

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Hyperon populations

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EOS including hyperons

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Non-rotating Neutron Stars The metric of a static, spherical space-time Energy-momentum tensor ( EOS p vs in T ) T = ( + p )u u + p g Energy-momentum conservation + Einstein eqns T ; = 0, G = R - ½ g R = 8 T TOV equations + EOS p=p( ) dm = 4 r 2 dr d = 2 e ( m + 4 p r 3 ) dr dp = - ( + p ) d dr dr e - = ( 1 - 2 m ) r

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Mass-Radius Relationship Allowed EOS : M max theo M highest obs

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Ref : Landau and Lifshitz, Fluid Mehanics,2 nd ed. ( Oxford,1999) Lindblom,Owen and Morsink, Phys. Rev. D 65, 063006 = n ( p ) d x ( 1- i ) x n d n Coefficient of Bulk Viscosity

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infinite frequency (fast) adiabatic index = n ( p ) p n x zero frequency (slow)adiabatic index 0 = [( p ) + ( p ). d x ] n x x n d n - 0 = - n B 2 p d x p n n d n = p ( - 0 ) ( 1- i )

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We consider the non-leptonic reaction, n + p p + x n = n n / n B : fraction of baryons comprised of neutrons ( t + v. ) x n = - ( x n - x n ) / = - n / n B where n is the production rate of neutrons / volume, which is proportional to the chemical potential imbalance = - The relaxation time is given by 1 =. n B x n where x n = x n - x n The reaction rate may be calculated using 4 = 1 d 3 p i M 2 (3) ( p 1 + p 2 - p 3 - p 4 )F( i ) ( 1 + 2 - 3 - 4 ) 4096 8 i=1 i

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where M 2 = 4 G F 2 sin 2 2 c [ 2 m n m p 2 m (1- g np 2 ) (1- g p 2 ) - m n m p p 2. p 4 (1 - g np 2 ) (1+ g p 2 ) - m p m p 1. p 3 (1 + g np 2 ) (1 - g p 2 ) + p 1. p 2 p 3. p 4 {(1 + g np 2 ) (1 + g p 2 ) + 4 g np g p } + p 1. p 4 p 2. p 3 {(1 + g np 2 ) (1 + g p 2 ) - 4 g np g p }] After performing the energy and angular integrals, = 1 p 4 (kT) 2 192 3 where is the angle-averaged value of M 2 1 = ( kT ) 2 p 192 3 n B x n

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Re = p ( - 0 ) 1 + ( ) 2 where = 2/3 max

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r-mode damping time B(h) The rotating frame energy E for r-modes is R E = ½ 2 2 1 r 2 dr R 2 0 Ref : Lindblom, Owen and Morsink, Phys Rev Lett. 80 (1998) 4843 Time derivative of corotating frame energy due to BV is R dE = - 4 Re. v ² r ² dr dt 0 The angle averaged expansion squared is determined numerically. v ² = ² ² ( r ) 6 [ 1 + 0.86 ( r ) 2 ] ( ² ) 2 690 R R G Ref : Lindblom, Mendell and Owen, Phys Rev D 60 (1999) 064006 The time scale B(h) on which hyperon bulk viscosity damps the mode is 1 = - 1 dE B(h) 2E dt

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Critical Angular Velocity The imaginary part of the frequency of the r-mode 1 = - 1 + 1 + 1 r GR B(h) B(u) R 1 = 131072 6 0 (r) r 6 dr GR 164025 where GR = timescale over which GR drives mode unstable B(u) = Urca bulk viscosity timescale The mode is stable when r 0 For a star of given T and M, the critical angular velocity c is that for which the imaginary part of the r-mode frequency vanishes i.e., 1 = 0 r

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Rotating Neutron Stars The metric of stationary axisymmetric rotating star in slow rotation limit Dragging of local inertial frames Fast rotating models: numerical codes ( RNS ) Friedman and Stergioulas, Ap.J. 444 (1995) 306

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D.Chatterjee, D.B. astro-ph/0602538

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Outlook Influence of Bose-Einstein condensation on bulk viscosity Non-leptonic process n p + K– may be important

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