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1 Binary Space Partition Trees ©Anthony Steed, Yiorgos Chrysanthou 1999-2003

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2 Overview n Previous list priority algorithms fail in a number of cases non of them is completely general n BSP tree is a general solution, but with its own problems Tree size Tree accuracy

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3 Binary Space Partitioning Trees (Fuchs, Kedem and Naylor `80) n More general, can deal with inseparable objects n Automatic, uses as partitions planes defined by the scene polygons n Method has two steps: building of the tree independently of viewpoint traversing the tree from a given viewpoint to get visibility ordering

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4 Building a BSP Tree (Recursive) A set of polygons {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} The tree

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5 Building a BSP Tree (Recursive) Select one polygon and partition the space and the polygons

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6 Building a BSP Tree (Recursive) Recursively partition each sub-tree until all polygons are used up

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7 Building a BSP Tree (Recursive) n Start with a set of polygons and an empty tree n Select one of them and make it the root of the tree n Use its plane to divide the rest of the polygons in 3 sets: front, back, coplanar. Any polygon crossing the plane is split n Repeat the process recursively with the front and back sets, creating the front and back subtrees respectively

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8 Building a BSP Tree (Incremental) n The tree can also be built incrementally: start with a set of polygons and an empty tree insert the polygons into the tree one at a time insertion of a polygon is done by comparing it against the plane at each node and propagating it to the right side, splitting if necessary when the polygon reaches an empty cell, make a node with its supporting plane

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9 Back-to-Front Traversal void traverse_btf(Tree *t, Point vp) { if (t = NULL) return; endif if (vp in-front of plane at root of t) traverse_btf(t->back, vp); draw polygons on node of t; traverse_btf;(t->front, vp); else traverse_btf(t->front, vp); draw polygons on node of t; traverse_btf(t->back, vp); endif }

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10 BSP as a Hierarchy of Spaces n Each node corresponds to a region of space the root is the whole of R n the leaves are homogeneous regions

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11 Representation of Polygons

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12 Representation of Polyhedra

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13 BSP Trees for Dynamic Scenes n When an object moves the planes that represent it must be removed and re-inserted n Some systems only insert static geometry into the BSP tree n Otherwise must deal with merging and fixing the BSP cells (see the book!)

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14 Recap n A BSP is a sequence of binary partitions of space n Can be built recursively or incrementally n Choice of plane used to split is critical n BSP trees are hard to maintain for dynamic scenes

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