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Examining Technology Uses in the Classroom: Students Developing Fraction Sense by Using Virtual Manipulative Concept Tutorials Suh, J., Moyer, P. S., Heo, H. (2005). Examining technology uses in the classroom: students developing fraction sense by using virtual manipulative concept tutorials. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 3(4), 1-21. 指導教授： Chen, Ming-puu 報 告 者： Jheng, Cian-you 報告日期： 2006/10/31

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2 Introduction In a summary of over 100 research studies, Marzano (1998; see also Marzano, Gaddy, & Dean, 2000) found that one instructional techniques that demonstrated a consistent positive impact on student achievement was the use of graphic/nonlinguistic formats to explore and practice new knowledge. The virtual manipulative concept tutorials used here have the following characteristics – they are dynamic computer-based objects that can be manipulated, and they are presented in a fluid graphic/nonlinguistic format.

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3 Introduction Students have less out-of-school experiences with fractions than with whole numbers, making it necessary for teachers to provide relevant experiences to enhance students' informal understanding of fractions and help connect procedural knowledge with conceptual understanding (National Research Council, 2001). Yet conventional instruction on fraction computation tends to be rule based.

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4 Purpose This project explored ways in which virtual manipulatives could facilitate the connection between conceptual and procedural understanding by capitalizing on the graphic/nonlinguistic features of the virtual fraction manipulatives. Question: What learning characteristics are afforded by the use of the virtual fraction manipulatives for understanding fraction equivalence and addition?

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5 Method Participants: 46 fifth-grade students in three classes High: 21 students Average: 12 students Low: 13 students Procedures: three days for one hour each day. The teacher used the same task sheets and virtual manipulatives with each of the three groups. Each lesson began with an introduction to the virtual manipulative applet that would be used that day and several mathematical tasks for the students.

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6 Data Sources Observation field notes, student interviews, and classroom videotapes. Every student was interviewed at least twice on each of the three days. Different interviewers spoke with different students on different days. Narrative analysis.

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7 Results (1) Task 1Task 1: Finding Equivalent Fractions Discovery learning. The denominator up to 99. Making conjectures. Mathematical relationships. − Repeated addition of numerators and denominators. − Finding all the multiples for the numerator and the multiples for the denominator − You get more pieces, but it’s still the same amount. Each piece gets thinner

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8 Results (2) Task 2: Adding Fractions with Unlike DenominatorsTask 2 Linking symbolic and iconic modes. Preventing a common error pattern. − 1/3+2/6=3/9 students in the Highest-level group were much more efficient at this process. students in the Average and Low achievement groups, the visual model appeared to act as a scaffolding mechanism providing assistance in finding common denominators for those who needed it.

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9 Results (3) Task 3Task 3: Fraction Track Game Student-to-student communication. Application of previously learned skills. As they continued to play the game, some of them realized that using an equivalent fraction would allow their markers on the game board to reach the end goal faster.

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10 Discussion Combined both visual and symbolic images in a linked format. Low achievement seemed to benefit. Allowed students to experiment and test hypotheses in a safe environment. The applets are designed to provide students with opportunities to see patterns in the mathematical processes they are doing.

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11 Discussion The dynamic nature, along with color, graphics, and interactivity can capture and hold the attention of students so that they persist in mathematics tasks. This interaction provided opportunities for students to make sense of the mathematical concepts they were exploring.

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12 Conclusion Learning characteristics: Allowed discovery learning through experimentation and hypothesis testing. Encouraged students to see mathematical relationships. Connected iconic and symbolic modes of representation explicitly. Prevented common error patterns in fraction addition.

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