2 Solution and Concentration How can we express the amount of solute to solvent in a solution?This is called the concentrationa measure of the number of particles of the solute in the solventConcentration =
3 Dilute Solutions Small quantity of solute per unit volume of solution. Concentrated Solutions Large quantity of solute per unit volume of solution.
4 Ways to express concentration 3 ways of expressing concentrationPercentagesPPM or PPB concentrationsmolar concentrations and mass concentrations
5 Percentage Concentration % (w/w) =W is weight same as mass% (w/v) =% (v/v) =
6 Everyday Examples Vinegar is 5% v/v acetic acid 5 mL of CH3COOH in 100 mL vinegarHydrogen peroxide is 3% m/v3 g of H2O2 per 100 mL of solutionYogurt is 2% m/m2 g of milk fat per 100 g yogurt
8 Examples % V/V = 4.1 L / 55 L = 7.5% V/V % W/V = 16 g / 50 mL = 32% W/V% W/W = 1.7 g / 35.0 g = 4.9% W/WMore practiceWhat is the % W/W of copper in an alloy when 10 g of Cu is mixed with 250 g of Zn?What is approximate % V/V if 30 mL of pure ethanol is added to 250 mL of water?What is the % W/W if 8.0 g copper is added to enough zinc to produce 100 g of an alloy
10 % Concentration: % Mass Example 3.5 g of CoCl2 is dissolved in 100mL solution. Assuming the density of the solution is 1.0 g/mL, what is concentration of the solution in % mass?%m = 3.5 g CoCl2100g H2O= 3.5% (m/m)
11 Low concentrationsFor very dilute solutions, weight/weight (w/w) and weight/volume (w/v)concentrations are sometimes expressed in parts per million (ppm).Example:Toxic substances found in the environmentChlorine in a swimming poolMetals in drinking waterParts per million also can be expressedas milligrams per liter (mg/L) (w/v)As milligram per kilogram (mg/Kg) (w/w)
12 PPM learning check1. Question: A solution has a concentration of 1.25g/L. What is its concentration in ppm?Convert the mass in grams to a mass in milligrams: 1.25g = 1.25 x 1000mg = 1250mgRe-write the concentration in mg/L = 1250mg/L = 1250ppm2. Question: 150mL of an aqueous sodium chloride solution contains g NaCl. Calculate the concentration of NaCl in parts per million (ppm).ppm = mass solute (mg) ÷ volume solution (L)mass NaCl = g = x 1000mg = 4.5mg volume solution = 150mL = 150 ÷ 1000 = 0.150Lconcentration of NaCl = 4.5mg ÷ 0.150L = 30mg/L = 30ppm
13 Molar concentration C = n / V is able to compare the amount of solute (moles) dissolved in a certain volume of solution.Molar concentration (mol/L) or also called Molarity (M)= Moles of solute (n)/Volume of solution (V MUST be in litres)is the number of moles of solute in one litre of a solution. We use "M" to denote molar concentration and it has the units of"mol/L".C = n / Vn = C x V
14 Concentration: Molarity Example If g of KMnO4 is dissolved in enough water to give 250. mL of solution, what is the molarity of KMnO4?As is almost always the case, the first step is to convert the mass of material to moles.MM = g/mol(39+55+(4X16)n= m/MM0.435 g KMnO4 / g/ mol = mol KMnO4Now that the number of moles of substance is known, this can be combined with the volume of solution — which must be in liters — to give the molarity. Because 250. mL is equivalent to L .Molarity KMnO4 = mol KMnO4 = Mol/L = M0.250 L solution
15 Molarity learning check How many moles of H2SO4 are there in 250mL of a 0.8M sulphuric acid solution?If 20g of NaOH is dissolved in sufficient water to produce 500 mL of solution, calculate the molar concentration in molarity.QuestionsWhat is the molarity of the solution formed by dissolving 80 g of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in 500 mLs of water? (Ar's: Na=23, O=16, H=1) Ans = 4 MWhat is the molarity of the solution formed by dissolving 9.8 g of sulphuric acid (H2SO4) in 1000 cm3 of water? (Ar's: H=1, S=32, O=16) Ans = 0.1 M3. What mass (g) of hydrogen chloride (HCl) is needed to make up 500cm3 of a solution of concentration 0.2mol/L? (Ar's: H=1, Cl=35.5) Ans = 3.65g
16 Preparing a Solution by Dilution Dilution = the process of decreasing the concentration of a solution, usually by adding more solventStock Solution = a solution that is in stock or on the shelf (i.e., available); usually a concentrated solution
17 Calculating the New Concentration of the Diluted Solution C1 x V1 = C2 x V2C1 = initial concentrationV1 = initial volume (volume of stock solution needed to make the concentration C2)C2 = final concentrationV2 = final volumePage 306 Q#6-7
18 Sample ProblemWater is added to 0.200L of 2.40mol/L NH3(aq) cleaning solution, until the final volume is 1.000L. Find the molar concentration of the final, diluted solution.