Presentation on theme: "1 www.sparceurope.org 1 SCHOLARLY PUBLISHING & ACADEMIC RESOURCES COALITION SPARC EUROPE Everything Should be Open? David Prosser SPARC Europe Director."— Presentation transcript:
1 1 SCHOLARLY PUBLISHING & ACADEMIC RESOURCES COALITION SPARC EUROPE Everything Should be Open? David Prosser SPARC Europe Director
2 2 SPARC Europe Scholarly Publishing & Academic Resources Coalition Formed in 2002 following the success of SPARC (launched in 1998 by the US Association of Research Libraries) Encourages partnership between libraries, academics, societies and responsible publishers Originally focused on STM, but coverage expanding Has over 110 members in 14 countries By acting together the members can influence the future of scholarly publishing
3 3 Political Agents for Change Scholarly Communication is being impacted by a number of public policy drivers; The knowledge economy (e.g. the Lisbon agenda) Accountability and assessment – value for money E-Science / E-Research Concerns regarding access to data (Freedom of information)
4 4 Political Imperative – Lisbon Agenda In March 2000, the EU Heads of States and Governments agreed their aim to make the EUthe most competitive and dynamic knowledge- driven economy by One of the key strategic means of achieving this goal was identified as preparing the transition to a knowledge-based economy and society by better policies for the information society and R&D… and specifically increasing investment in R&D to 3% of GDP
5 5 Knowledge Economy We want the UK to be a key knowledge hub in the global economy, with a reputation not only for world-class scientific and technological discovery but also for turning that knowledge into new and profitable products and services. Tony Blair In a post-industrial economy there is increasing acknowledgement of the relationship between: Investment in R&D Access to knowledge Technology transfer Wealth creation
6 6 Accountability and Assessment – Value for Money With increased spending on R&D and education comes increased desire for accountability and assessment of: Universities Departments Research Groups Individuals And with more assessment comes a desire for more metrics of success: Number of citations Who is citing whom Downloads Patent registration Rate of technology transfer And a desire to streamline the assessment process (Note the plan to base future RAEs on metrics)
7 7 E-Science / E-Research Scientists developing collaboration technologies that go far beyond the capabilities of the Web To use remote computing resources To integrate, federate and analyse information from many disparate, distributed, data resources To access and control remote experimental equipment Capability to access, move, manipulate and mine data is the central requirement of these new collaborative science applications Tony Hey Successful E-Science needs: Resources to integrate, federate and analyse Interoperability Open access Institutional repositories will increasingly become part of the infrastructure that allows E-Science to take place (across all disciplinary and geographic boundaries).
8 8 Access to Data Science, Technology and Innovation for the 21st Century. Meeting of the OECD Committee for Scientific and Technological Policy at Ministerial Level, January 2004 Recognising that an optimum international exchange of data, information and knowledge contributes decisively to the advancement of scientific research and innovation; Recognising that open access to, and unrestricted use of, data promotes scientific progress and facilitates the training of researchers; Recognising that open access will maximise the value derived from public investments in data collection efforts; DECLARE THEIR COMMITMENT TO: Work towards the establishment of access regimes for digital research data from public funding in accordance with the following objectives and principles: Openness, Transparency, Legal conformity, Formal responsibility, Professionalism, Protection of intellectual property, Interoperability, Quality and security, Efficiency, Accountability.
9 9 Access to Data Allowing data to be used, reused, repurposed, shared, mined, etc. makes it more valuable: Human Genome Project Clinical trials Weather and environmental data, Chemical structures, etc. etc. MRC Policy on Data Sharing and Preservation The MRC supports the view of the OECD that widespread data sharing will enable researchers, empower citizens and convey tremendous scientific, economic, and social benefits. The MRC believes that publicly-funded research data are a public good, produced in the public interest, and that they should be openly available to the maximum extent possible. From 1 January 2006 all funding proposals must include a strategy for data preservation and sharing. Data must be shared in a timely and responsible manner, and made available with as few resptrictions as possible.
The Effect of the Internet – a Disruptive Technology Opportunities for expanded access and new uses offered by ever-expanding networking evolving digital publishing technologies and business models New dissemination methods Better ways to handle increasing volume of research generated 75% of journals (83% in STM) now online
The Situation Today – Dissatisfaction at Many Levels Authors Their work is not seen by all their peers – they do not get the recognition they desire Despite the fact they often have to pay page charges, colour figure charges, reprint charges, etc. Often the rights they have given up in exchange for publication mean there are things that they cannot do with their own work Readers They cannot view all the research literature they need – they are less effective Libraries Even libraries at the wealthiest institutions cannot satisfy the information needs of their users Funders Want to see greater returns on their research investment Society We all lose out if the communication channels are not optimal.
Open Access What is it? Call for free, unrestricted access on the public internet to the literature that scholars give to the world without expectation of payment. Why? Widen dissemination, accelerate research, enrich education, share learning among rich & poor nations, enhance return on taxpayer investment in research. How? Use existing funds to pay for dissemination, not access.
Budapest Open Access Initiative Two complementary strategies: Self-Archiving: Scholars should be able to deposit their refereed journal articles in open electronic archives which conform to Open Archives Initiative standards Open-Access Journals: Journals will not charge subscriptions or fees for online access. Instead, they should look to other sources to fund peer-review and publication (e.g., publication charges)
What are institutional repositories (open archives)? Essential elements Institutionally defined: Content generated by institutional community Scholarly content: preprints and working papers, published articles, enduring teaching materials, student theses, data-sets, etc. Cumulative & perpetual: preserve ongoing access to material Interoperable & open access: free, online, global
Why institutional repositories? For the Individual Provide a central archive of their work Improved discovery and retrieval Increase the dissemination and impact of their research Acts as a full CV For the Institution Increases visibility and prestige Acts as an advertisement to funding sources, potential new faculty and students, etc. Helps in administration, e.g., Research assessment and evaluation For Society Provide access to the worlds research Ensures long-term preservation of institutes academic output
What is a Journal? Scholarly publishing comprises four functions: Current model: Integrates these functions in journals This made sense in print environment ARCHIVING Preserving research for future use AWARENESS Assuring accessibility of research CERTIFICATION Certifying the quality/validity of the research REGISTRATION Establishing intellectual priority
The Four Functions - Repositories ARCHIVING Preserving research for future use AWARENESS Assuring accessibility of research CERTIFICATION Certifying the quality/validity of the research REGISTRATION Establishing intellectual priority
Certification Certification gives: Authors – Validation of their work (important for promotion and grant applications) Readers – Quality filter Journals provide peer review and give a quality stamp to research and authors Journals should be open access
The Four Functions of a Journal ARCHIVING Preserving research for future use AWARENESS Assuring accessibility of research CERTIFICATION Certifying the quality/validity of the research REGISTRATION Establishing intellectual priority
How the pieces work together Author ContentServices Reader Institutional Repositories Disciplinary Repositories Interoperability Standards Registration e.g.: by institutions Certification e.g.: peer review Awareness e.g.: search tools, linking Archiving e.g.: by library
Theory Into Practice - Institutional Repositories OpenDOAR (Directory of Open Access Repositories) An authoritative directory of academic open access repositories Lists over 900 repositories Over 100 in the UK Can be used to search across content in all listed repositories Gives information on repository polices (copyright, re- used of material, preservation, etc.)
Theory Into Practice - Open Access Journals Lund Directory of Open Access Journals (http://www.doaj.org/) – lists over 2725 peer- reviewed open access journalshttp://www.doaj.org/ PLoS Biology (launched 2003 – IF 14.1), PLoS Medicine (2004 – IF 13.7), PLoS Computational Biology, PLoS Genetics, PLoS Pathogens (2005) BioMed Central (published over 25,000 papers) New Journal of Physics (IF 3.75) Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO- – 279 titles open access online
Open Access – Making the Transition Give Authors the choice: If they pay a publication charge the paper is made open access on publication. If they do not pay the publication charge the paper is only made available to subscribers. Over time, as proportion of authors who pay increases subscription prices can fall Eventually, entire journal is open access doc
Open Access – Making the Transition A number of traditional publishers are transforming their closed access journals into open access journals: Proceedings of the National Academies of Science (PNAS) Oxford University Press American Institute of Physics Company of Biologists American Physiological Society American Society of Limnology and Oceanography Springer Blackwells
The Power of Open Access – Self Archiving For 72% of papers published in the Astrophysical Journal free versions of the paper are available (mainly through ArXiv) These 72% of papers are, on average, cited twice as often as the remaining 28% that do not have free versions. Figures from Greg Schwarz Tim Brody from Southampton has shown that papers for which there is also a free version available have, on average, greater citations than those that are only available through subscriptions
The Power of Open Access – Journals Open access Proceedings of the National Academies of Science (PNAS) papers have 50% more full-text downloads than non- open access papers ml …and are on average twice as likely to be cited document&doi= /journal.pbio
Open Access and Public Policy We see a unique coming together of: Agents for change (Knowledge economy, Accountability and assessment, E-Science, Access and preservation of data, etc.) Technological changes (Internet, Digital publishing technologies) New business models Leading to an increasing number of public policies relating to open access from: Research groups Universities Research centers Funding bodies Governments National and international bodies
Open Access Policies – Berlin Declaration in Support of Open Access Our mission of disseminating knowledge is only half complete if the information is not made widely and readily available to society. Signatories should promote open access by encouraging researchers/grant recipients to publish in open access. encouraging the holders of cultural heritage to support open access by providing their resources on the Internet. developing means to evaluate open access contributions and online-journals in order to maintain the standards of quality assurance and good scientific practice. advocating that open access publication be recognized in promotion and tenure evaluation. Issued on 22 nd October 2003
Berlin Declaration in Support of Open Access 233 signatories world-wide, including: Germany: Fraunhofer Society, Wissenschaftsrat, HRK, Max Planck Society, Leibniz Association, Helmholtz Association, German Research Foundation, Deutscher Bibliotheksverband France: CNRS, INSERM Austria: FWF Der Wissenschaftsfonds Sweden: Swedish Research Council, Swedish Library Association, Association of Swedish Higher Education China: Chinese Academy of Sciences, National Science Foundation China (NSFC) Italy: Rectors of almost all Italys universities Spain: Rectors and Chancellors of 13 universities, Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) Belgium: 17 Higher education rectors and ministers
Research Councils UK – Policy in Support of Open Access The seven Research Councils in the UK spend approximately £2.1billion annually Ideas and knowledge derived from publicly-funded research must be made available and accessible for public use, interrogation, and scrutiny, as widely, rapidly and effectively as practicable. Five Councils have mandated deposit of papers resulting from projects funded from 1 October 2006 in freely accessible electronic repositories: Biotechnology & Biological Sciences Research Council Economic & Social Research Council Medical Research Council Natural Environment Research Council Science and Technology Facilities Council The remaining two Councils have no policies in place: Arts & Humanities Research Council (policy was expected mid-2007) Arts & Humanities Research Council Engineering & Physical Sciences Research Council
US National Institutes of Health Political Interest: US Congress instructed the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to develop new access policy Grant recipients are requested to deposit their papers up to 12 months after publication Approximately 60,000 papers each year could be made freely available as a result of the policy However, uptake of voluntary policy has been disappointing (about 4%) Congress is currently looking to instruct the NIH to change the request to a mandate
Federal Research Public Access Act of 2006 Introduced to the US Senate by John Cornyn (Republican) and Joseph Lieberman (Democrat) on 2 nd May Bill would require federal agencies that fund over $100 million in annual external research to make electronic manuscripts of peer-reviewed journal articles stemming from their research publicly available via the Internet. Agencies affected include: Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defence, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services (including NIH), Homeland Security, and Transportation, as well as the Environmental Protection Agency, NASA, and the National Science Foundation. Any embargo would be limited to 6 months after publication.
European Commission Study Study on the economic and technical evolution of the scientific publication markets in Europe Connected to the ECs objective of establishing a genuine European Research Area and [their] aim to raise the profile of European research Looking at: What are the main changes in Europe? What and who is driving change and why? If there is any resistance to positive change, what/who is blocking it? What are the consequences for users (authors, readers, libraries)? Launched 15 June 2004
European Commission Study Concludes that …policies should make sure that the market is sufficiently competitive and dissemination-friendly. In particular, they should address the need to: enhance access to research output; prevent strategic barriers to entry and to experimentation. Recommendation A1. Guarantee public access to publicly-funded research shortly after publication Research funding agencies … should promote and support the archiving of publications in open repositories, after a … time period to be discussed with publishers. This archiving could become a condition for funding. The following actions could be taken at the European level: (i) Establish a European policy mandating published articles arising from EC funded research to be available after a given time period in open access archives, and (ii) Explore with Member States and with European research and academic associations whether and how such policies and open repositories could be implemented. study_en.pdf
European Commission Study The EC hosted a conference on scholarly communication in Brussels in February Before the meeting a SPARC Europe and the Knowledge Exchange partners co- sponsored petition collected 22,000 signatories calling on the Commission to adopt the studys recommendations. (http://www.ec-petition.eu/)http://www.ec-petition.eu/ University associations Portuguese Rectors Conference, Hochschulrektorenkonferenz (Germany), Irish Universities Association, Finnish Council of University Rectors, Association of Swedish Higher Education, Norwegian Association of Higher Education Institutions, Conference of Italian University Rectors Research funders European Research Council, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, German Research Council, Austrian Science Fund, Spanish National Research Council, Wellcome Trust, Swiss National Science Foundation, CNRS, INRIA, Medical Research Council, Association of Medical Research Charities (UK), Max Planck Society, Swedish Research Council National academies Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Royal Swedish Academy of Letters, History & Antiquities, Royal Flemish Academy of Arts and Sciences, Lithuanian Academy of Sciences, Royal Scientific Society of Jordan, Schweizerische Akademie der Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Academia Romana, Hungarian Academy of Sciences
European Commission Study The conference was inconclusive, but the Commission has issued a Communication which includes: A commitment to include open access publishing costs in EC grants The promise of specific guidelines to be issued, within specific programmes, on the publication of articles in open repositories (e.g. subsequent instructions for Framework 7 grantees – link). Significant funding for repository infrastructure and digital preservation Funding of research on publication business models and on the scientific publication Also, the EC has published a Green Paper – The European Research Area: New Perspectives, describing:The European Research Area: New Perspectives Effective knowledge sharing. This should consist of: open and easy access to the public knowledge base. Access to knowledge generated by the public research base and its use by business and policymakers lie at the heart of the European Research Area, where knowledge must circulate without barriers throughout the whole society. Europe should stimulate the development of a 'continuum' of accessible and interlinked scientific information from raw data to publications…
Self-Archiving Policies Research Organisations: CERN – Requires researchers to deposit papers in the CERN repository CNRS (Centre National de la recherche scientifique) Institutions: Queensland University of Technology Bielefeld University University of Bremen University of Hamburg University of Lund Universidade do Minho University of Southampton Case Western Reserve University University of Oslo
What Should a Policy Look Like? Berlin 3 meeting, held 28 February – 1 March 2005 in Southampton provided a simple template for an open access policy. In order to implement the Berlin Declaration institutions should: 1) Implement a policy to require their researchers to deposit a copy of all their published articles in an open access repository. and 2) Encourage their researchers to publish their research articles in open access journals where a suitable journal exists and provide the support to enable that to happen.
Open Access – Appealing to All the Major Stakeholders To the funders of researcher – both as a public service and as an increased return on their investment in research To the authors – as it gives wider dissemination and impact To readers – as it gives them access to all primary literature, making the most important research tool more powerful To editors and reviewers – as they feel their work is more valued To the libraries – as it allows them to meet the information needs of their users To the institutions – as it increases their presence and prestige To small and society publishers – as it gives them a survival strategy and fits with their central remit
Everything Should be Open! It is one of the noblest duties of a university to advance knowledge, and to diffuse it not merely among those who can attend the daily lectures--but far and wide. Daniel Coit Gilman, First President, Johns Hopkins University, 1878 (on the university press) An old tradition and a new technology have converged to make possible an unprecedented public good. Budapest Open Access Initiative, Feb. 14, 2002 Contact SPARC Europe: