U.S. Const. Amendment V. No person shall... be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law...
Rule 4. Summons (k) Territorial Limits of Effective Service. (1) In General. Serving a summons or filing a waiver of service establishes personal jurisdiction over a defendant: (A) who is subject to the jurisdiction of a court of general jurisdiction in the state where the district court is located; (C) when authorized by a federal statute.
(2) Federal Claim Outside State-Court Jurisdiction. For a claim that arises under federal law, serving a summons or filing a waiver of service establishes personal jurisdiction over a defendant if: (A) the defendant is not subject to jurisdiction in any state’s courts of general jurisdiction; and (B) exercising jurisdiction is consistent with the United States Constitution and laws.
P (Va.) brings suit in federal court in Virginia against D, a German domiciliary residing in Germany, for a battery that the German committed against him in New York. The German has no other contacts with the United States besides the brief trip to NY during which the alleged battery occurred. Is there PJ?
Yasser Arafat is sued under a federal antiterrorism act allowing for American victims of foreign terrorism to sue for damages. (The alleged acts of terrorism in this case occurred in Israel.) The action is brought in federal court in New York. Is there PJ?
All actions are brought in the Southern District of New York... Is there PJ?
A federal civil rights action concerning the defendant’s arrest of the plaintiff in Buffalo, NY. Defendant lives in Pennsylvania and is served there.
A product liability action brought by a California plaintiff against a corporation incorporated in Delaware with its principal place of business in Tennessee. The action concerns a product manufactured in Tennessee and purchased in CA, where it harmed the plaintiff. The defendant has a large factory and branch office in Buffalo, New York (with 10,000 employees) but the plaintiff at no time has this asset of the corporation attached by the federal court. The defendant corporation is served (through service on its Chief Legal Officer) in Tennessee.
A California state-law diversity action concerning a brawl between the plaintiff and the defendant in California. The plaintiff is a citizen of California and the defendant a citizen of New York. The defendant is served while on a business trip in California.
An action by a New York plaintiff against a German defendant for breach of German contract law concerning a contract signed in Germany with performance in Germany. At the initiation of the suit the American plaintiff had the federal court attach the assets of a trust that had been created by the German’s mother with the German as the beneficiary. The assets of the trust and the trustee are located in New York City. Defendant is served in Germany.
An action by a New York citizen against a California citizen for violation of a federal antiterrorism act. The defendant’s alleged violations of the federal act were all committed in Iraq. The defendant has no contacts with the state of New York.
Sec. 1391. - Venue generally (b) Venue in general.--A civil action may be brought in-- (1) a judicial district in which any defendant resides, if all defendants are residents of the State in which the district is located; (2) a judicial district in which a substantial part of the events or omissions giving rise to the claim occurred, or a substantial part of property that is the subject of the action is situated;
(c) Residency.--For all venue purposes-- (1) a natural person, including an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United States, shall be deemed to reside in the judicial district in which that person is domiciled;
1391(c)(3) a defendant not resident in the United States may be sued in any judicial district, and the joinder of such a defendant shall be disregarded in determining where the action may be brought with respect to other defendants.
P (San. Fran. – N.D. Cal.) sues D1 (NYC – S.D.N.Y.) & D2 (Buffalo – W.D.N.Y.) Suit is under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 concerning an allegedly unlawful arrest that occurred in an airport in NJ (D.N.J.)
P (San. Fran. – N.D. Cal.) sues D1 (NYC – S.D.N.Y.) & D2 (Conn. – D. Conn.) Suit is under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 concerning an allegedly unlawful arrest that occurred in New Jersey (D.N.J.)
P (San. Fran. – N.D. Cal.) sues D1 (NYC – S.D.N.Y.) & D2 (Conn. – D. Conn.) - Suit is a Cal. state law breach of contract action concerning a contract signed in San Francisco for the construction of a hospital in Albany (N.D.N.Y.) - P claims hospital is not according to plans
Residence of corporations and unincorporated associations: § 1391(c)(2) an entity with the capacity to sue and be sued in its common name under applicable law, whether or not incorporated, shall be deemed to reside, if a defendant, in any judicial district in which such defendant is subject to the court's personal jurisdiction with respect to the civil action in question
(d) Residency of corporations in States with multiple districts.--For purposes of venue under this chapter, in a State which has more than one judicial district and in which a defendant that is a corporation is subject to personal jurisdiction at the time an action is commenced, such corporation shall be deemed to reside in any district in that State within which its contacts would be sufficient to subject it to personal jurisdiction if that district were a separate State, and, if there is no such district, the corporation shall be deemed to reside in the district within which it has the most significant contacts.
P (S.F. – N.D. Cal.) sues the D1 Corp. & the D2 Corp. Suit is a Cal. state law breach of contract action concerning a contract signed in San Francisco for the construction of a hospital in Albany (N.D.N.Y.) D1 Corp. built foundation; D2 Corp. built structure D1 Corp. incorporated in Delaware (D. Del.); main office in NYC (S.D.N.Y.); large branch office in Philadelphia (E.D. Pa.) D2 Corp. incorporated in Delaware (D. Del.); main office in Pittsburgh (W.D. Pa.); large branch office in Boston (D. Mass.)