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English accents 8. Historical change (iii) British prestige Innovations resisted in some parts of Britain.

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Presentation on theme: "English accents 8. Historical change (iii) British prestige Innovations resisted in some parts of Britain."— Presentation transcript:

1 English accents 8. Historical change (iii) British prestige Innovations resisted in some parts of Britain

2 marking criteria D: Average awareness of issues and knowledge, without any creative development. The student has worked less than he/she should have, but their work is not of such a standard deserving to fail. This is the minimum standard required to build in the subject. C: Good awareness of, and adequate engagement with, issues; demonstrates satisfactory broad knowledge, with viable if somewhat sketchy methodology. Some shortcomings but in general average work with viable conclusions. The structure and style should be generally clear, concise and coherent. B: Good, highly competent work, demonstrating thorough knowledge of the subject; good critical awareness with hints of potential for independent thought; solid research, viable methodology and good application of it. The structure and style should be clear, concise and coherent. A: Evidence of independent thought; critical awareness; wide knowledge based on thorough research; clearly articulated, solid and viable methodology; perhaps some originality or application of method, coupled with viable conclusions. The structure and style should be clear, concise and coherent. In short, a pleasure to read.

3 Posy essay: desiderata Consistently distinguish writing from speech, using appropriate notation: underlining or quotes for orthography, /slashes/ or [brackets] for transcribed speech. Make clear the difference between special spellings that imply a particular non-standard pronunciation and those that do not (eye-dialect: wot, bitta, actcherly, jus, dunno). Correctly identify and describe the phonetic processes depicted, including the constraints on them. Properly distinguish elision (deletion) / assimilation / fronting / stopping / glottalling. Correctly identify the orthographic devices used by the cartoonist, including the use of hyphens and apostrophes. Show awareness of the principles of English spelling.

4 Recent changes in RP: (i) early twentieth century 1 / O: > Q/ in CLOTH wordscloth, cough, cross, lost, off, often… FORCE merger: loss of /O@/ (> /O:/)floor = flaw, four = for, source = sauce GOAT fronting: [oU > @U]goat, over the road, oh no loss of [o]obey, November, biological, microphone opening of /{/that bad man replacement of [4] by [£]very sorry for any errors

5 Recent changes in RP: (ii) mid twentieth century loss of / U@ / ( > / O: /) poor, sure, cure, your(s), youre drift from weak / I / to / @ / possible, visible, sanity, carelessness plosive epenthesisfence, instance, conscience, emphasis yod coalescence before weak Vactual, perceptual, gradual glottalling of /t/ _C, _#Cfootball, witness, atlas, network, quite C

6 glottal /t/ button [ ˈbʌtn̟, ˈbʌʔn̟] footprint [ ˈfʊtʰprɪntʰ, ˈfʊt ̚prɪnt ̚, ˈfʊʔprɪnʔ ]

7 Recent changes in RP: (iii) late twentieth century weak final [I] > [i] (/i/)happy, coffee; various, radiate backing of /@U/ before [5]told, cold, goal, whole unrounding, fronting of /u:, U/spoon, you, good glottalling of /t/ in envs. _#V, _|| quite easy, not only, right. vocalization of /l/ ([5 > o])milk, shelf, feel, table, middle yod coalescence before strong VTuesday, tune, reduce, duke monophthonging of /e@/ [> E:]fair and square, Mary uptalk (HR on statement)My names Mary / Smith. s-affricate assimilation (s>S)_tr: strong_tS: student

8 The symbol i green grin sleep slip feeling filling i: I happy coffee valley glorious tell me i

9 tu:n, tSu:n du:k, dZu: k nu :

10 Wells, 2000: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary

11

12 uptalk (old) \Hi. | 'Im 'Cathy \Pomeroy. | Im a 'customer \service agent. (new) \Hi. | 'Im 'Cathy /Pomeroy. | Im a 'customer /service agent. There was this /girl | who lived like 'three doors /down from me.girl Were 'working \/people, | but our 'pay doesnt re/flect that.

13 s ʃ / _ tr, tʃ s-affricate assimilation [s] changes to [ʃ] before an affricate strong ʃtrɒŋ student ˈʃtʃuːdn̝t


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