7 Atacama Desert (driest in the world) PeruThree ZonesCostaAtacama Desert (driest in the world)SierraAndes (2nd highest mountains in world)SelvaAmazon (largest tropical rainforest in world)Source: Coleccion Huascaran, Lima
12 Primacy of Lima: ‘the head of a giant on the body of a dwarf’ 29
13 Reasons for Primacy capital city (work, culture, civilisation) largest port (Callao)traditional home of Vice-Roy in Colonial
14 Migration City centre v Paisanos 40% Costa 50% Andes mainly central-southern Andesyoung/ambitiousearthquakesrural povertyland tenure in Andesinfant mortalityguerrillascocaineEl Ninomodernisation of coast
15 Source: Children in Peru, Peru Support Unit 1991
23 Barriadas A residential community formed by low income families in which thehouses are constructed in large measure by the residents themselves andwhich are generally but not exclusively formed illegally.(Collins 1975)
35 Geographical distribution unoccupied, state or church or absentee landlord owned
36 The Invasion After several years residence Pay to join invasion committeePlanned by architectsHoly Days, National Holidays, Public Holidays, weekends, government crisisAppeal to patriotism or religiosity of nation or landlords
55 Carmen de la Legua 2003By 1974 its transformation into an urban barrio was almost complete – paved roads, uniform lotes, water and electrical services, urban style houses constructed with permanent materials, and a central plaza around which stood municipal buildings, a movie theatre, and a church all were established.’ (Lobo 1982 p 42)
74 Julio and Helsomina (Susan Lobo 1982) 1969Belt factory (J)Tailor (J)KeroseneMetal recyclingVegetables at marketWool ballsBrick recyclingGuinea pigsChickensChichaTV1974Belt factoryFront of house storeBeerZappoDucksChickenGoatsSheepWoolRefrigeratorTypewriter (daughter)Electric repair (son)
75 INCOME = Job + Overtime + Fringe benefits + Part time jobs (cachuelas) +Reciprocity: exchange labour for goods +Reciprocity: exchange labour for labourVaried and flexible repertoire
78 Government Policies Do nothing Eradicate: bulldoze, burn Contain: Law Prevent: planning, municipal housingFacilitate: site & service, credit, technical, improve & incorporateCorrect: remodel, relocate
80 The Informal Approach Advantages Disadvantages Cheaper Slow Non-monetary inputEarly escape from slumsAdded value to landStimulated construction and service industriesDisadvantagesSlowPoor conditionsLow qualityUneconomic use of space & resources
81 Lima’s barriadas Why so successful? (John Turner 2004) When dwellers control the major decisions andare free to make use of their own contributions in the design, construction or management of their housing,both this process and the environment produced stimulate individual and social well-being.
82 Lima’s barriadas Why so successful? (Susan Lobo 1992) Positive adaptationBuild a community (material and spiritual)Accomplish goalsView themselves and their future positivelyThroughKinship and paisanosAlliances and compadrazgoControl: migration & house constructionFlexibility
83 References http://comasweb.com Dietz, H Urban Poverty, Political Participation and the State: Lima University of Pittsburgh PressGilbert, A The Latin American City. Latin America Bureau.Lloyd, P Slums of Hope? Pelican.Lloyd, P The ‘Young Towns’ of Lima. Cambridge University Press.Lobo, S A House of My Own. University of Arizona Press.Morrish, M Squatter Settlement in the Third World. Geography Longman.Smith, C.T Population and Development in Peru. John Murray.