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© Boardworks Ltd 20121 of 14 Types of attachment
© Boardworks Ltd 20122 of 14 Icons key: For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation Teacher’s notes (in Notes Page)Accompanying worksheetFlash activity (not editable) Extension activity SoundVideo Web links 2 By the end of this section students will be able to: Identify stages in the development of attachment Identify and explain different types of attachment and the characteristics associated with them Identify and explain cross-cultural differences in attachment Evaluate research on cross-cultural differences in attachment Learning objectives
© Boardworks Ltd 20123 of 14 Bowlby (1969) argues that early attachment relationships influence emotional development by providing an internal working model for relationships. This acts as a template for relationships the child will have in the future. Development of attachment Schaffer (1993) described it as “A close emotional relationship between two persons, characterized by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity (closeness).” Which individual do you think an infant is most likely to form its first attachment to? Attachment is a close reciprocal emotional bond between two people. The earliest attachments occur between an infant and his/her caregivers, and this has a special role to play in development.
© Boardworks Ltd 20124 of 14 Development of attachment
© Boardworks Ltd 20125 of 14 In small groups, discuss these questions about phases in the development of attachment. Do you expect that all babies will move from phase to phase at the same age? Give your reasons. Is it inevitable that the strongest attachment will always be with the mother? Give your reasons. Do you think that every baby develops the same type of attachment to its mother? Give your reasons. Discussion: development of attachment When you have finished, feedback to the rest of the class. Did you have the same ideas?
© Boardworks Ltd 20126 of 14 The Strange Situation
© Boardworks Ltd 20127 of 14 Attachment types
© Boardworks Ltd 20128 of 14 The Strange Situation
© Boardworks Ltd 20129 of 14 Attachment types
© Boardworks Ltd 201210 of 14 Class vote
© Boardworks Ltd 201211 of 14 Can you think of any more strengths or weaknesses? Evaluation of the Strange Situation The reliability of the Strange Situation experiment is supported by a study carried out by Wartner et al (1994), which found that 78% of children were classified as having the same attachment type at the ages of one and six. There are problems with the validity of the Strange Situation, because it can be argued that it only measures specific relationships, not general characteristics. Lamb (1977) found that an infant may be classified as securely attached with their mother, yet be classified as avoidant with their father. There are ethical issues with the procedure because it purposefully causes infant distress. + Strengths- Weaknesses
© Boardworks Ltd 201212 of 14 Cross-cultural variation in attachment
© Boardworks Ltd 201213 of 14 Cross-cultural variation in attachment
© Boardworks Ltd 201214 of 14 Class discussion In groups, consider the following questions regarding the Strange Situation and Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg’s meta-analysis: Which countries’ studies are most different from the findings of Ainsworth et al? Are the countries studied representative of the world’s cultures? Give reasons for your answer. What influence do you think the child rearing practices in different countries might have had on the findings from cross-cultural studies? How appropriate do you think it is to use the strange situation for assessing attachment outside the USA?
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Cross-cultural Variation Child rearing practices vary considerably from place to place Environment Traditions Beliefs about children Does this result in.
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Strange Situation AAAAAhhhhh. Cross-cultural Variation Child rearing practices vary considerably from place to place – Environment – Traditions – Beliefs.
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Significance Dr. Mary D. Ainsworth, a developmental psychologist work revolutionized the understanding of the bond between mothers and infants. Dr. Mary.
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