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Presentation on theme: "ANU College of Law MARKETS IN HIGHER EDUCATION:TEACHING VERSUS RESEARCH Professor Margaret Thornton."— Presentation transcript:


2 Social Liberalism 20 th Century political philosophy of western democracies, esp UK, Scandinavia & Australasia - egalitarian Social liberalism was committed to the common good – free higher education Government played a central role in minimising inequalities through progressive taxation, social welfare policies such as unemployment benefits, sickness benefits, age pensions, etc 2

3 Neoliberalism Influence of Thatcher and George Bush (Snr) – public institutions a drain on the state – savage cuts to higher ed – a global phenomenon Instead of the common good and public responsibility, focus shifted to private markets – eg, utilities, transport and higher education – the imperative in favour of privatisation unstoppable - widening inequality – competition policy User pays philosophy; income generation The market now the arbiter of the good, but role of govt central – an intimate liaison - 3

4 CORPORATISATION Definition: The application of business practices to universities to make them more like private businesses Commodification of knowledge – New knowledge economy replaces primary resources & manufacturing. Unis may relish the economic descriptor - academic capitalism, the enterprise university –Competition – between countries, institutions & individuals; global markets in education - inequality –Consumerism - Unis as service providers have irrevocably altered the teacher/student relationship 4

5 The New Environment Neoliberal subjects - academics as well as students - promotion of the self Risk society – a corollary of the market –Unis seek to guard against through managerialism & metricisation –Contractualism, precarious work – disproportionate impact re gender –Increased workloads, stress - somatechnics 5

6 TEACHING - SUBSTANCE Shift from know what to know how Slough off theory & critique in favour of applied or useful knowledge; technocratic –Resistance to interrogating the knowledge transmitted – positivism & right answers favoured – job ready, use value in market How best to serve the new knowledge economy How to make the world safe for markets Business-related; attack on humanities & soc/sci 6

7 PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICES Reversion to lectures - Transmission of frozen knowledge – pre-packaged, economically rational Small group teaching - sloughed off – too expensive in a mass system + interrogation & critique unfashionable Theoretical, critical & feminist subjects less likely to be offered – students dont want them on their transcripts Flexible delivery – eg block teaching – accommodate needs of customers, esp earner-learners On-line & MOOCS – contributes to dehumanisation – obscures greyness & subjectivity of knowledge 7

8 RESEARCH Teaching must be excellent but relegated to 2 nd order Research grants – incl consultancies Research entrepreneurialism – ideal academic atechnopreneur - technoscientific knowledge combined with business acumen (Kenway) – biomedicine & technoscience; international stars Knowledge transfer – commercialisation of knowledge –Pursuit of knowledge for its own sake (Newman) now anachronistic. Instrumentalism & functionality Productivity & performativity 8

9 AUDIT CULTURE Publish in international journals (dismissal of the local) Focus on metricisation & calculability Rankings & league tables – standardisation; sloughing off of diversity between institutions – measure up or face closure Indvidualised competition - global stars - Benschop & Brouns refer to as the Olympian model (masculinist) v that of the agora 9

10 DELINKING OF TEACHING & RESEARCH Privileging of research – status + income: Encourages competition & hierarchisation of unis – Russell Group v others The less time spent on teaching = more time for research - knowledge creation Grants: Buy out teaching time – encourages casualisation (feminised) Research -inactive: More teaching – a form of punishment 10

11 DE-LINKING of TEACHING AND RESEARCH Privileging of research: encourages lowest common denominator approach Teaching – mass pedagogies - lectures, on-line, etc; no time for theory or debate Assessment – short answer & multiple choice rather than research essays take too long to mark Role of quality agencies Encourages transmission of orthodoxy - how to, positivistic & applied knowledge Cf knowledge creation in research 11

12 Conclusion: A Hybrid Institution Governance: Managerial, bureaucratised & top-down, not collegial or collaborative Managers the new university elite - tell academics, the cognitariat, what to do; NB - Masculinity of managerialism counteracts feminisation of the academy Markets + managerialism = hybridity – unis no longer public nor fully private 12

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