Take Notes on this: Define “clause” Define “phrase” Define and differentiate 2 types of clauses Identify and give examples of 2 types of conjunctions Define and write examples of 3 sentence types
Clauses and Phrases both are groups of words A CLAUSE contains BOTH a subject and a verb A PHRASE may contain verb(s) or noun(s) but does not have BOTH subject and verb
Clauses and Phrases A CLAUSE contains BOTH a subject and a verb A PHRASE may contain verb(s) or noun(s) but does not have BOTH subject and verb Americans must be on time for everything on time for everything
Clause or Phrase? walking on the shore Loudly called his name With yellow and red polka dots It was Americans with power They care too much P P P P C C
Clauses Clauses are the essential building blocks of sentences The number of clauses in a sentence determines the sentence pattern AND much of the punctuation of the sentence.
Clauses The number of clauses in a sentences determines the sentence pattern AND much of the punctuation of the sentence 1 clause = Simple sentence = American must be on time for everything 0 clause must be on time for everything Fragment ==
Types of Clauses independent dependent Can stand alone as a sentence Cannot stand alone as a sentence Ex: Americans love their freedom. Ex: because Americans love their freedom.
Dependent Clauses Subordinate clauses Start with a subordinating conjunction EX: because, while, although, as, so that, Relative Clauses Start with a relative pronoun Ex: that, which, who
Dependent or Independent ? Americans value material goods that in some countries, tradition is more important than it is in America who consider hard work more valuable than inheritance Time matters independent dependent independent
Conjunctions Connect sentence parts Coordinating Conjunctions Subordinating Conjunctions for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so Although, because, so that, if, since Connect equal partsConnect unequal parts
Compare Subordination and Coordination Coordination We care about our country, but we care more about individual rights Subordination Although we care about our country, we care more about individual rights Two INDEPENDENT clauses carry equal grammatical weight Subordinate clause carries LESS grammatical weight than independent clause
Sentence types Simple Sentence One independent clause Americans value work.Generally, hard
Sentence types Compound Sentence Two (or more) independent clauses Americans value work,andthey value its rewards.
Sentence types Complex Sentence One (or more) independent clause(s) and one (or more) dependent clause(s) Since Americans value hard work, they also value its rewards.
Finding the Subject The subject of the sentence is in the INDEPENDENT CLAUSE The subject of the sentence cannot be in a prepositional phrase A compound sentence will have more than one subject.
Finding the Subject Around my house my mother is the Queen. S, When it snows we warm up her car and we scrape all the snow off of it. S S,,
Words or phrases before the subject that are not PART of the subject are separated from the subject with a comma Even though she is working a lot, at 8:00 am she will arrive on time and ready for her class.,, On Labor Day we will not have class. S S