Presentation on theme: "On putting geography back into geography education: implications for the preparation of geography teachers David Mitchell IOE, University of London"— Presentation transcript:
On putting geography back into geography education: implications for the preparation of geography teachers David Mitchell IOE, University of London
My intentions: 1.The knowledge turn 2.Implications for ITE 3.Some practical examples for a Geography ITE programme 4. Conclusion: Cautiously optimistic – but how will teaching be measured? My argument: Putting geography back is dependent on putting education back – the curriculum making model helps.
(The student teacher spoke)...as if the purpose was to get through tasks rather than to develop geographical understanding. Roberts (2010:112) 1.A turn away from knowledge Since 1976 decline of teacher autonomy, accountability of teachers, measurement (Ofsted, league tables), performance management, standardised systems – teacher as technician. Schooling for skills and competencies – flexible & willing workers & consumers, learning to fit in to society and economy. Use of geography for good causes (that are not educational).
1.The knowledge turn 1. Policy- (DfE 2010), National Curriculum Consultation 2. Academic –powerful knowledge (Young and Muller, 2010), core knowledge for cultural literacy (Hirsch (1987), neo-liberal hegemony/ official knowledge (Apple, 2004), radical geography/ critical approach to knowledge Morgan (2011), Apple (2004), good causes (Marsden,1997), therapy education (Furedi, 2009), curriculum making (Lambert and Morgan,2010) 3. Popular – media accounts of Edexcel scandal 2011 (corruption of exams, grade inflation) suggests a cynicism about quality of what is learned in school 4. School – beginning to pick up on and use core knowledge
Po werful knowledge – challenge to show student teachers in what ways geographical knowledge is powerful (transformative) Curriculum making - enacted curriculum exists, lives in the classroom Beliefs and values - awareness – of their own beliefs and values and those influencing them...humanist (scholarly understanding) social reconstruction, social efficiency, learner centred? Student teachers as geographers – an ongoing conversation with Earth as their home 2. Implications for ITE
Future Scenario View of knowledgeImplication for school subject F1 Under-socialised Knowledge for the powerful. Elitist - subject boundaries are fixed and maintained. Knowledge as fixed, backward looking. F2 Over-socialised Knowledge lacks power Subject boundaries are removed. Generic learning outcomes, such as skills, become the aim – a turn away from knowledge. F3Social realist Powerful knowledge. Subject knowledge boundaries are maintained but also crossed for the creation and acquisition of new knowledge. Subject knowledge dynamic and forward looking. Three futures for subject knowledge (adapted from Young and Muller 2010) 2. Implications for ITE - Powerful knowledge
The resources for teachers curriculum making in geography (Source: Lambert and Morgan 2010) 2. Implications for ITE - Curriculum making
The casual remark over staff-room coffee lifts the curtain for a moment… Of course, the fundamental thing is to give them a grasp of the basic ideas of the discipline… I dont really care what they got from it but the trip was a tremendous experience… We are really here to get them an O level arent we, thats all… If they just understand how the system gets at them, Ill be happy. (Walford, 1981:222) Revealing teachers curriculum ideologies (annotations added ) Scholar-academic Learner- centred Social efficiency Social reconstructionist 2. Implications for ITE – awareness of beliefs and values A question of putting the education back in geographic education?
2. Implications for ITE – Student teachers as geographers Ongoing conversation
i) GA engagement
3. Some practical examples for a Geography ITE programme ii) The lesson plan - a subject box Lesson Plan Date:Period:Group: Unit Theme: Lesson Title: Lesson Aim: Lesson Objectives: How is this lesson developing students geography? Cross-curricular learning: Resources:Advance Preparation/Action Points:
3. Some practical examples for a Geography ITE programme iii) Curriculum making emphasis in asssignments Assignment 1 – To plan teach and evaluate a sequence of lessons. Necessary to provide a strong rationale for the educational purpose of the geography. Assignment 2 – Teacher Research into wider educational concerns (sustainability/ GIS/ Assessment). Necessary to engage in the purposes of geography, and how geography relates more widely to school and education.
3. Some practical examples for a Geography ITE programme iv) Understanding their relationship to curriculum Should we be teaching students teachers more about a)history of geography education and curriculum? b)curriculum ideologies – the different value and belief systems which influence the curriculum? A vision of education goes hand in hand with a purposeful use of geographical knowledge.
4. Conclusion – cautiously optimistic Knowledge turn is to be welcomed. Student teachers are curriculum makers – they need theories to understand this, and a vision of education to carry it through. But, how will schools and teachers be measured?
References Apple, M. (2004) Ideology and Curriculum 3 rd Edition. New York: RoutledgeFalmer Furedi, F. (2009) Wasted: Why Education Isn't Educating. London: Continuum Press. Hirsch E D (1987) Cultural Literacy, New York: Houghton Mifflen. Lambert, D. & Morgan, J. (2010) Teaching Geography – A Conceptual Approach. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Marsden, W. (1997)On taking the geography out of geographical education: Some historical pointers. Geography 82 (3), 241–52. Morgan, J. (2011) What is radical school geography today? Forum 53, 1, 116 – 128. Oram, R. (1973) An action frame of reference as a register for curriculum discourse, Journal of Curriculum Studies, 10, 2, Roberts, M. Where's the geography? Reflections on being an external examiner, Teaching Geography, 35, 3, pp Walford, R. (1981) Language, ideologies and geography teaching. In Walford, R. (ed.) Signposts for Geography Teaching (pp. 215–22). London: Longman. Young, M. & Muller, J. (2010) Three Educational Scenarios for the Future: lessons from the sociology of knowledge, European Journal of Education, 45, 1, pp