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CS CS1512 Foundations of Computing Science 2 Lecture 22 Digital Simulations Probability and statistics (3) © J R W Hunter, 2006

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CS Simulations Programs regularly used to simulate real-world activities. city traffic the weather nuclear processes stock market fluctuations environmental changes shipping movements in the Straits of Dover!

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CS Simulations Simulations are normally only partial and involve simplification. Greater detail has the potential to provide greater accuracy. Greater detail typically requires more resource: Processing power. Simulation time.

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CS Benefits of simulations Support useful prediction. e.g. the weather Allow experimentation. Safer, cheaper, quicker. Example: How will the wildlife be affected if we cut a highway through the middle of this national park?

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CS Basic Algorithm set up a number of objects to represent the world that you are trying to model add the objects to a collection maintained by the simulation set the simulation time to zero while the simulation time isnt up for each object call the method that executes the behaviour of the object during the simulation time step do any necessary output increment the simulation time by the time increment wait for an amount of real time corresponding to the time increment

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CS ChanSim: Main simulation loop public void simulate(int timeStep, int speedUp) { while (time < totalSimulationTime) { for (int i = vessels.size()-1; i >= 0; i--){ Vessel vessel = (Vessel) vessels.get(i); if (vessel.onChart()) vessel.erase(chart); vessel.move(timeStep); if (vessel.onChart()) vessel.draw(chart); } chart.update(); time = time + timeStep; wait(timeStep*60*1000/speedUp); //*60*1000 to convert minutes to msec }

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CS Vessel: move /** * Determine where the vessel will be after timeStep */ public void move (int timeStep) { // distance travelled in km per time step (in minutes) double delta = speed*timeStep/60; location = new Location(location.getx()+ Math.sin(bearing)*delta, location.gety()- Math.cos(bearing)*delta); }

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CS Probability

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CS Initial thoughts A person tosses a coin five times. Each time it comes down heads. What is the probability that it will come down heads on the sixth toss? ½ or 1 chance in 2 or 50% assumed that the coin is fair ignored empirical evidence of the first five tosses less than ½ or... assumed that the coin is fair thought about law of averages – in the long run, half heads, half tails possibly confused about the question - which was not What is the probability that there will be six heads in a row? more than ½ or... cynical – assumed two headed (or biased) coin

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CS Definition Probability: the extent to which an event is likely to occur, measured by the ratio of the number of favourable outcomes to the total number of possible outcomes. 10 balls in a bag 7 white; 3 red close eyes shake bag put in hand and pick a ball 10 possible balls (outcomes) Can you think of any reason why any one ball should be picked rather than any other? If not, then all outcomes are equally likely.

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CS Definitions Probability of picking a red ball favourable outcome = red ball number of favourable outcomes = 3 number of outcomes = 10 probability = 3/10 (i.e. 0.3) Note: probability of picking a white ball is 7/10 (0.7) probabilities lie between 0.0 and 1.0 we have two mutually exclusive outcomes (cant be both red and white) outcomes are exhaustive (no other colour there) in this case the probabilities add to 1.0 ( ) a probability is a prediction

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CS More definitions Trial action which results in one of several possible outcomes; e.g. picking a ball from the bag Experiment a series of trials (or perhaps just one) e.g. picking a ball from the bag twenty times Event a set of outcomes with something in common e.g. a red ball

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CS Probability derived a priori Suppose each trial in an experiment can result in one (and only one) of n equally likely (as judged by thinking about it) outcomes, r of which correspond to an event E. The probability of event E is: r P(E) = n a priori means without investigation or sensory experience

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CS More complex a priori probabilities Probability of throwing 8 with two dice: 5 outcomes correspond to event throwing 8 with two dice 36 possible outcomes probability = 5/

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CS Probability derived from experiment Toss a drawing pin in the air - two possible outcomes: point up point down Can we say a priori what the relative likelihoods are? (c.f. fair coin) If not, then experiment. Probability based on relative frequencies (from experimental data) If, in a large number of trials ( n), r of these result in an event E, the probability of event E is: r P(E) = n

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CS Probability as a relative frequency number of trials must be large (how large?) trials must be independent - the outcome of any one toss must not depend on any previous toss no guarantee that the value of r/n will settle down compare with the relative frequencies for existing data if we have enough experiments then we believe that the relative frequency contains a general truth about the system we are observing.

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