Presentation on theme: "Creativity Judith Masthoff. Why be creative? Finding the killer application Finding an innovative user interface Finding an innovative way of doing business."— Presentation transcript:
Creativity Judith Masthoff
Why be creative? Finding the killer application Finding an innovative user interface Finding an innovative way of doing business Solving technical problems Solving organisational problems Solving personal problems
Why teaching creativity? Only 2% of adults of any age level can be accurately classified as "highly creative" while over 90% of children five years old or younger can be classified this way. The huge drop-off begins at ages 6 and 7 (only 10% in these age groups were found to be considered "highly creative") Ken Lizotte, Emerson Consulting Group
Things that often go wrong when solving a problem in a group… Unstructured No notes Ideas are not really new Negative comments (this idea will not work) Some people speak a lot, others are silent
But people (1) This 'telephone' has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. The device is inherently of no value to us. (Western Union internal memo, 1876) We don't like their [The Beatles] sound, and guitar music is on the way out. (Decca Recording Company, 1962)
But people (2) 640K [memory] ought to be enough for anybody (Bill Gates, 1981) Louis Pasteur's theory of germs is ridiculous fiction. (Pierre Pachet) Who the hell wants to hear actors talk? (Warner Brother's H. M. Warner, 1927) I think there is a world market for maybe five computers. (Thomas Watson)
Great spirits have always encountered violent opposition from mediocre minds - Albert Einstein The person who says it cannot be done should not interrupt the person doing it. - Chinese Proverb A person with a new idea is a crank until the idea succeeds. - Mark Twain Every really new idea looks crazy at first -Alfred North Whitehead
What is creativity?
Ancient Greeks (Socrates) Creative ideas come from the Gods (Inspiration = the god within) Not when a person is rational, but when someone is "beside himself", when "bereft of his senses. Advice: "thinking" might prevent the reception of divinely inspired revelations.
19th Century Creative ideas come from within Hidden part of mind, inner Africa Emotional side Advice: Lead an unusual life
Graham Wallas model (beginning of the 20th century) Preparation: know field of study Incubation: spend time away from problem Illumination: flash of a new idea Verification: see if idea really works
Synectics Together produce A structured way of brainstorming in a group
Main rules All ideas welcome, certainly the crazy ones! I wish I could…. Associative listening: dream away and build on what other people are saying No evaluation of ideas!
Associative Listening You hear one thing, you think of another Example: Lion
The players Problem owner –has a real problem and the power to act –takes the content decisions Facilitator –guards the process –does not get involved in the contents Resource –generate ideas
The process (divergent part) Problem owner presents problem Resources generate springboards Optional Excursion Until problem owner satisfied (enough ideas)
Presenting the problem Start with a headline! –I need to find a way to.. –I wish I could... Give some background –the present situation and your impossible wish –what you have thought of already –why interested in the problem and power to act Meanwhile, associative listening..
Story excursion Forget about the problem! Start of with a word Participants in turn add a couple of lines to the story Each bit has to have an unexpected ending Come back to the problem… Lets try it...
Career excursion Forget about the problem! Each participants is told to pretend they have a certain profession They think a minute They are asked how does it feel to be a.. Come back to the problem... Lets try it...
Personal analogy excursion Forget about the problem! Each participants is told to pretend they are a certain object They think a minute They are asked what is it like to be a.. Come back to the problem… Lets try it...
The process (convergent part) Problem owner selects idea (or combination) paraphrases it, and explains what (s)he liked about it Problem owner poses new problem What I need now is a way to.. Divergent part on the sub-problem Until problem owner satisfied or time up
Street excursion Forget about the problem! Participants go for a walk They report on their walk Come back to the problem… Lets try it...
Synectics Practice Split in two groups Pick a problem owner and facilitator
Improving the problem specification Often problem specification is too vague, like invent a new product Often trying to solve the wrong problem!
Mind Mapping method Put the problem in the middle Branch out
Why? method Start with a problem statement, like How to... Ask why do you want to... Listen to the answer Ask why again, etc, till you really now why
Some other techniques Destination How to often getting from A to B Is B the only desirable end, or are there others? Excellence Make how to statement more extreme Increase sales by 10% => Increase sales by 100% Rewording
Idea Selection Creative sessions lead to many ideas How to select the right one?
Questions Options Criteria (QOC) Determine important criteria beforehand Judge each option (=idea) on the criteria Criteria 1 Criteria 2 Criteria 3 Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Option 4 Criteria may have a different weighting...
I want a topics Top 11! Another idea selection technique: voting I will give you each ten colored stickers (= virtual money) If you think an idea is good (in this case, criterion is good), vote for it by putting sticker next to it If you think it is very good, you can put multiple stickers.
SWOT Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats Specify each of these for each idea Often used to analyse business Can also be used to select ideas And to start brainstorm...
What if I have too many ideas? SWOT and QOC work well with a limited number of ideas to select from But not with 100s... You could vote for a top 10 and apply SWOT or QOC Maybe good to do some clustering first! (= merge similar ideas under one heading)