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Interest Groups. But First, Interest Articulation Definition – way for people or groups to ___________ _________ & ___________ to the government _________________.

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Presentation on theme: "Interest Groups. But First, Interest Articulation Definition – way for people or groups to ___________ _________ & ___________ to the government _________________."— Presentation transcript:

1 Interest Groups

2 But First, Interest Articulation Definition – way for people or groups to ___________ _________ & ___________ to the government _________________ & ____________________ to articulate have grown as societies become more complex – Contact city council member – Meet with politicians – Work with a group for a common concern

3 Several Forms FormScope of InterestsDegree of Pressure on Elites Voting in ElectionsBroadModest pressure Informal GroupFocused on common interest High pressure Direct contact on personal matter Deals with specific, personal problem Low pressure Direct contact on policy issue Action on a government policy Modest pressure Protest activityHighly expressive support for particular issue High pressure Political consumerismFocused on specific issues & activities High pressure

4 How Citizens Participate Participation varies by ____________________ & ____________________ – Better educated, higher status individuals more likely to participate Most frequent: ____________________ – Voting – Convincing others to vote – Working with candidates or groups ____________________ politics – people working together to address a common problem – is very direct in attempting to influence policy ____________________ are most visible

5 So What? To influence policy, citizens need to articulate interests More activities  greater ability for your voice to be heard Differences in voices are reflected in policy outputs – Who ___________ speak?

6 Interest Groups Social or political groups that represent a set of people Vary in structure, style, financing, and support base Some are poorly organized & unfocused Others have permanent organizational base – Professional staff Participate in the political process – Serve on government advisory bodies – Testify at parliamentary hearings 4 types: anomic, nonassociational, institutional, and associational

7 Anomic Groups ____________________ groups that suddenly form in reaction to an event – Frustration, disappointment, or other strong emotion – Rise & subside quickly Actions may lead to ____________________, but not necessarily – Public demonstrations or act of violence – Not planned protests Examples – Protests common in political tradition of France – in 2006, mass protests nearly brought the economy to a standstill until the government withdrew unpopular labor regulations – Wildcat strikes (not union-strikes) feature of the British trade union scene – 1992 LA riots

8 Nonassociational Groups Rarely are well organized Activity is episodic Based on ______________________________________ of ethnicity, region, religion, occupation, or kinship More continuity than anomic groups due to cultural ties May be a ____________________ – although members share a problem, none takes effort to organize other members against it – If large benefits are achieved, they’ll be shared even by those who didn’t do the work (free-riders) – Pattern of people waiting for rewards w/o taking action is common among other groups too 2 kinds most interesting – Large group, not formally organized, but members perceive common interests – Small village group where members know each other personally

9 Institutional Groups Formal & have other ____________________________________ in addition to interest articulation Political parties, business corporations, legislatures, armies, bureaucracies, & churches often have separate political groups to represent interests Strength usually drawn from their ____________________ – Size of membership – Income of members – If based on governmental institution, it has direct access to policymakers Examples – Farm lobby – Political parties – Roman Catholic Church – Educational officials – Corporations

10 Associational Groups Formed ____________________ to represent the interests of a particular group Have procedures for formulating interests & demands Full-time professional staff Very active in the policy process Affect the development of other groups – Organizational base gives an advantage over nonassociational groups – Tactics & goals recognized as legitimate in society Some united by common economic or self-interest goals Some have common political ideology or policy goal – Environmental movement – Women’s rights Examples – Trade/Labor Union – Chamber of Commerce – Manufacturers’ Association – Ethnic Association – Lobbyists for health insurance organizations

11 Civil Society Society in which people are involved in social & political interactions ___________ of state control or regulations – Community groups, voluntary associations, religious groups, etc. exist – Free communication & information through mass media & Internet ____________________ a sign of civil society Attention toward developing a ____________ civil society – Groups in one nation connected to groups in another – Meet at international conferences & jointly reinforce each other’s goals – Difficulty in developing and newly democratized nations where there was political oppression or suppression before

12 Interest Groups Booklet Create a booklet of interest groups in the US and abroad Find interest groups that match your beliefs or you find interesting! Include: – Cover page – Brief introduction – What are interest groups? What do they do? – 4 Pages: 2 US groups + 2 from abroad When did it form? What is its purpose? What activities is it known for? – Back cover – name, date, & class period Can make in Word, Publisher, or PowerPoint

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