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Top 10 Industrial Chemicals Produced in US 5 of the 10 are acids or bases Used in manufacturing - help make or are a part many of the products we use
Acid - substance that releases H+ when add to H 2 O Base - substance that releases OH- when added to H 2 O HCl + H 2 O H + + Cl - + H 2 O NaOH + H 2 O Na + + OH - + H 2 O
Acids HCl - hydrochloric acid H 2 SO 4 - sulfuric acid H 2 CO 3 - carbonic HC 2 H 3 O 2 - acetic HNO 3 - nitric Bases NaOH - sodium hydroxide KOH - potassium hydroxide Ca(OH) 2 - calcium hydroxide
pH scale measures whether a solution is acidic or basic 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 neutral STRONG weakweak STRONG
pH measures amount of H+ ion in solution - is a inverse log - pH = 1 has 10 -1 M - going from 2 to 1 - means increase 10x of H+ ions
ACIDS - pH less than 7 BASES - pH greater than 7 Neutral - pH = 7 (distilled water)
Other characteristic of acids 1. Sour taste 2. Reacts w/ carbonate (CO 3 ) 3. Litmus paper turns red 4. React w/ most metals
Other characteristic of bases 1. Bitter taste 2. Feels slippery 3. Litmus paper turns blue
Most complex chem. rxn. in organisms- pH and living things Only occur when pH is between 6.5 to 7.5 Transport of CO 2 & O 2 by red blood cells
some organisms require habitat at specific pH Cranberries, carnivorous plants (venus-fly trap & pitcher plants) pH - 3.5 to 5.5
Measuring pH 1. pH meter 2. Litmus or pH paper 3. Indicators change colors when pH changes
Example - phenophthalein acid - clear base - pink changes at pH =
Neutralization reaction General formula: ACID + BASE pH 7 a salt + H 2 O pH=7
H+ (from acid) & OH- (from the base) combine to make water Need equal amount of each to get neutralization (pH=7)
Buffers Substance able to resist pH change
Blood, Buffers, & pH pH of blood 7.35 - 7.45 blood contains buffers to keep w/in this range H 2 CO 3 + OH- (base) HCO 3 - + H 2 O HCO 3 + H + (acid) H 2 CO 3 + H 2 O If base added If acid added
HCO 3 - kidneys conserve these ions H 2 CO 3 -- eliminated in lungs - CO 2 pulled off left with H 2 O
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