Presentation on theme: "Lectures 4 & 5 Cardiovascular Reactivity. General reading in Health Psychology To make the most of this course you should read the relevant sections in."— Presentation transcript:
General reading in Health Psychology To make the most of this course you should read the relevant sections in one of the recommended introductory texts, either Taylor or Sarafino. The sections below provide background for the first 4 lectures. They are fairly easy reading. In Taylor you should read Chapter 2 Systems of the body Pages 19-31 (nervous, endocrine and Cardiovascular systems). Chapter 6 Stress & Coping Complete Chapter (pages 178-215). In Sarafino the equivalent chapters are essentially Chapter 2 pages 33-34, 51-56 & Chapters 3 & 4 (pages 70-131).
Cardiovascular Reactivity: Some reading The most cited reference on the topic of CV reactivity is Krantz DS & Manuck SB (1984). Acute psychophysiologic reactivity and risk of cardiovascular disease: a review and methodological critique. Psychol. Bull., 96, 435-464. This is essential reading for the course. It is demanding reading. The latter part of the paper (from page 447) is most relevant to lectures 3/4, the sections on CV disease will be relevant to later lectures. There was special section of Psychosomatic Medicine devoted to Cardiovascular Reactivity in 2003. Read Linden WL, Gerin & Davidson K (2003) Cardiovascular reactivity: Status Quo and a research agenda for the New Millennium. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 5-8
Lectures 3/4 (cont). Kamarck TW & Lovallo WR (2003) Cardiovascular reactivity to psychological challenge: conceptual and measurement issues. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 9-21. When discussing appraisal I shall lean heavily on the studies reported in Tomaka, Blascovich, Kelsey & Leitten (1993) Subjective, physiological and behavioral effects of threat and challenge appraisal. J. Per. Soc. Psychol., 65, 248-260. Blascovich & Tomaka present a fuller account of their views in Blascovich & Tomaka (1996) The biopsychosocial model of arousal regulation. Adv. Exp. Soc. Psychol., 28, 1-51.
References on social support and cardiovascular reactivity Kamarck T (1992) Recent developments in the the study of cardiovascular reactivity: contributions from psychometric theory and social psychology. Psychophysiology, 29, 491-503. Lapore SJ et al, (1993) Social support lowers cardiovascular reactivity to an acute stressor. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55, 518-524. Lapore SJ (1995). Cynicism, social support and cardiovascular reactivity. Health Psychology, 14, 210-216.
Obrist study of Beta Blockade. Active Coping associated with Sympathetic Input to heart.
Manuck. Comparison of Cardiac & Vascular Reactors
Tomaka & Blascovich, following Lazarus & Folkman: 2 common stress related appraisals Threat : perception of danger greater than perception of coping abilities Challenge: perception of danger less than perception of coping Threat associated with negative emotions - like Lazarus circumcision film. However challenge associated with more CV activation (Obrist Active passive distinction) Tomaka & Blascovich attempt to clarify this. Task: Mental arithmetic (Active Coping) Threat: rating of threat greater than rating of ability to cope (Primary/Secondary). Challenge: rating of coping greater than rating of threat. After task ratings of experienced stress obtained.
3 studies, Study 1 preliminary. Study 2. Mental arithmetic. Subjects classified into threatened or challenged. Results Subjective & Behavioural Threat group More Stress 3.85 v 2.85 on 7 point scales Threat group performed less well 2.19 v 2.85 (self ratings) and produced less correct answers, 10.5 v 14.00 NB results most clear cut first time tasks carried out. Physiological ….
T& B Study 3 Compare Active Coping (MA as before) & Passive Coping (graphic slides of accident victims & surgery patients. Measures: Active Coping. Threat & Challenge as before Passive Coping: Only threat, since no coping response available. Results Subjective & Behavioural Active Coping: similar to Study 2. Physiological results